Abstract: Jaundice is not uncommon during the neonatal period. Biliary atresia (BA) is one of the most commonetiologies of neonatal cholestatic jaundice and requires surgical intervention in time. Liver transplantation inchildren is most commonly performed in victims with BA to avoid mortality from hepatic failure. Incidenceof BA is around 2-3/10,000 in Taiwan, much higher than that of caucasians, about 0.4~0.8/10,000. Even afterreceiving Kasai operation, no less than 40% of long-term BA survivors suffer from progressive biliary,hepatic fibrosis, leading to portal hypertension, esophageal variceal rupture, ascites and hypersplenismthough the underlying mechanism is still not clear.To assess the severity of hepatic fibrosis, percutaneous liver biopsy remains the golden standard butassociated untoward events, though uncommon, are inevitable. It is also questionable whether the smallbiopsy sample with regional difference can be representative of the whole liver changes. In BA patients withquestionable biopsy results, another percutaneous liver sampling will be repeated some days after the firstsampling. According to the results of previous MR diffusion-weighted image (DWI) reports, including thoseof our team, hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients decrease in BA children with hepatic fibrosis.Non-invasive diffusion kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel incoherent motion images (IVIM) of magneticresonance imaging disclosing both microscopic perfusion and water diffusion are more sophisticated andinformative DWI techniques.. In this prospective study, we hope to get DK and IVIM images during routine MR examinations, only toincrease the examination time by 10 minutes. Our purpose is to correlate Child classifications and Mayo riskscores for primary biliary cirrhosis with mean diffusivities, slow diffusion coefficients, fast diffusioncoefficients, kurtosis, perfusion fraction and the products of a fast diffusion coefficient and perfusionfraction … etc. The non-invasive IVIM and DK related indices may help to predict and follow theprogression of biliary hepatic fibrosis in BA patients before and after operation without potential risksaccompanying liver biopsies.