摘要：本研究整理雙酚A毒理學研究文獻，並使用EFSA於2015年調整暫定雙酚A每日容許攝取量4 μg/kg bw/day重新進行雙酚A之健康風險評估。相較第一年的評估結果，調整雙酚A每日容許攝取量為4 μg/kg bw/day後總飲食暴露雙酚A的危害指標平均值是4.24E-2，第95百分位數1.10E-1，危害指標平均增加11.5倍。即便如此，自飲食途徑暴露到雙酚A的危害指標平均值及第95百分位數仍小於1，表示雙酚A的暴露預期不致造成顯著的健康危害。相較於成人的雙酚A暴露，近年許多流行病學或毒理學研究皆著重於雙酚A對於嬰幼兒生殖與發展之可能健康效應進行評估。研究結果發現在大腦發育與行為方面有較為顯著的健康效應，但由於研究不確定性高加上因果關係難以建立，目前尚未能具體確立雙酚A的健康效應，但不同研究多指出雙酚A對於嬰幼兒都可能會造成健康上之衝擊，CERHR與EFSA皆認為不可忽視雙酚A對嬰幼兒大腦發育與行為可能造成的影響。在雙酚A管制策略方面，風險評估結果多顯示雙酚A暴露導致的健康風險極低，但由於研究不確定性太高，其風險無法明顯確立。然基於「預防原則」，以風險管理角度加以考量後，美國與歐盟多數國家皆禁止嬰兒相關用品中含有雙酚A。我國雙酚A管制策略部分，建議可參考澳洲、日本與德國等國作法，雖未針對雙酚A制定正式管制策略，但透過與製造商和零售商之協商宣導，使其自願性淘汰雙酚A之使用與販賣可能是最佳作法。與此同時，針對雙酚A替代品之研究及風險評估與禁限用雙酚A之經濟衝擊評估等作為，仍待更多後續研究加以驗證。
Abstract: This study summarizes the results of studies related to epidemiology and toxicology of bisphenol A (BPA). After EFSA adjusted provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of BPA to 4 μg/kg bw/day in 2015, this study re-calculated the potential health risk of BPA. The results showed that the average hazard index (HI) for exposure to BPA is 4.24E-2 and the 95th percentile HI is 1.10E-1 after adjustment of the TDI in risk calculations, the HI increased by 11.5 times. Even so, the average and the 95th percentile HI were far less than 1, and we concluded that the potential risk due to exposure to BPA is not significant.Recently many BPA epidemiological or toxicological studies focused on BPA’s potential health effects on reproduction and development of new born babies. Various studies have observed some significant effects in brain development and behavior of new born babies; yet it is difficult to verify the potential health effects due to the fairly high uncertainty in those studies. However, several studies have also pointed out that BPA can have significant health effects on new born babies, both CERHR and EFSA have shown that BPA’s potential impacts on the brain development and behavior cannot be ignored.Although results from the many literatures related to BPA risk assessment showed that the potential risk from exposure to BPA was low, the relatively high uncertainty in those BPA risk studies indicated that the health risk of BPA cannot be clearly established. It is necessary to adopt the “precautionary principle“ to reach an acceptable management strategy for management of BPA. It is recommended that Taiwan government may refer to the practices of BPA management policies of Australia, Japan, Germany and other countries to encourage the reduced uses of BPA in manufacturing processes. In the mean time, the possible alternatives to BPA in industries should be developed and potential impacts on economy from restriction of BPA in manufactory processes should also be assessed.