摘要：本研究顯示蜜蜂取食含50 μg/L益達胺的50%蔗糖溶液，會引發不正常取食行為；並發現蜜蜂若於幼蟲期受到0.04 ng以上的益達胺毒害，其成蜂的嗅覺關連學習能力會變差。農作區的殘留量一般會近似或高於上述，因此我們推測農業環境中的蜂群可能都受到殘毒的危害。由於關連學習能力亦會影響蜜蜂的採集行為，現階段致力於研究亞致死劑量益達胺對蜂群採集行為的影響。將應用蜜蜂紋身標記及電腦影像辨識，取樣觀察益達胺對個體採集效率的影響；並應用紅外線遮斷裝置計數蜂群總體外出採集的變化，評估蜂群的衰敗。另外也將應用蜜蜂雷達追蹤蜜蜂的飛行，研究其受毒害時的不正常取食行為；以及在發生歸巢迷航時，尋回個體以進行毒理學研究。由於磁感受也可能在蜜蜂飛行導航中辦演重要的角色，本研究亦應用磁感受關聯學習測試、顯微手術切除操作以及電生理記錄技術，確認蜜蜂的磁感受發生於其腹部，且其神經訊號會經由腹神經索傳向腦。目前以電生理細胞內記錄以及細胞標記技術，標記及研究磁感受神經網絡。此外也將應用輔以磁場操作的飛行模擬系統，探究磁感受在蜜蜂飛航時的功能；並試驗益達胺對蜜蜂磁感受與飛航的影響。本研究將探究蜜蜂的磁感受，並解析益達胺毒害、磁感受及蜂群崩潰症候的關連。
Abstract: In the preceding research, we demonstrated that an acute imidacloprid, a common applied neonicotinoid, contamination at the concentration as low as 50 µg/L could induce an abnormal foraging behavior (delayed return or not return to a feeder) in a forager, and a tiny dose of 0.04 ng/larva (or a contamination at the concentration of 0.25 μg/L in the brood food, when a larva generally consumes about 160 μL of brood food before its pupation) of a chronic imidacloprid contamination could cause the impairment of the olfactory associative behavior in the next generations of workers. The environmental residual is approximately 10 µg/L, therefore it is assumed that the honeybee in an agro-environment could remain under the stress of insecticide contamination. Because of the impaired olfactory associative ability will affect on bee’s foraging behavior, experiments will be conducted to investigate the sublethal effects on the foraging activity in a long-term contaminated bee colony. The foraging performances of the individuals will be monitored and be assayed by applying a bee tattooing technique and a machine vision logging system. In addition, the foraging activity of entire colony will be monitored through an IR-block bee counter for evaluate the strength of the colony. Furthermore, a bee radar system will be applied for tracking the imidacloprid-contaminated foragers for monitoring their abnormal flights during foraging and for locating the lost foragers to recover their bodies for toxicological analysis. Due to the magnetoreception may play an important role on bee’s navigation, the magnetoreception of honeybee is also investigated in this research. We have showed the bee’s magnetoreception by behavioral tests, such as a magneto-associative PER (proboscis extension reflex) test, and applied microsurgery manipulation and electrophysiological recording to demonstrate the magnetoreception is truly related to the iron-granule organ in the abdomen of a honeybee and the receptive signal was transmitted through ventral nerve cord to the brain. The intracellular recording and cell labeling techniques are employed for investigating the neural pathway of honeybee’s magnetoreception system. Nevertheless, a magnetic field generator coil-equipped bee flight simulation system will be also applied for studying the role of magnetoreception in bee’s foraging flight and for evaluating the effect of imidacloprid contamination on bee’s magnetoreception and flight. It is supposed this research will lead us explore the secret of the magnetoreception in animals, and reveal the relationships between the imidacloprid contamination, magneto-receptive disorder as well as the colony collapse disorder in the honeybee.
colony collapse disorder