|Detection of florfenicol resistance genes in Riemerella anatipestifer isolated from ducks and geese
|Antimicrobial resistance; Chloramphenicol; FloR; Florfenicol; Riemerella anatipestifer
The cat gene, coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase has been reported for conferring the chloramphenicol resistance for Riemerella anatipestifer. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, however, are unable to inactivate florfenicol. In this study, 66 R. anatipestifer isolates were investigated for their susceptibility to chloramphenicol and florfenicol and the presence of floR gene. Results showed nine florfenicol intermediate or resistant R. anatipestifer isolates were all floR positive. The expression of floR gene in E. coli and inhibition studies with PAβN indicated that the floR gene was as an efflux pump conferring resistance to both chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Southern hybridization revealed the floR was located in the plasmid DNA of five isolates and in the chromosomal DNA of four isolates. Furthermore, two novel floR-carrying plasmids designated pRA0726 and pRA0846 were sequenced completely. pRA0726 was 11,704bp in size with 10 putative open reading frames which included the floR, catB and bla OXA-209 resistance genes. The most differences between sequences of pRA0846 and pRA0726 were the absence of a bla OXA-209 gene and the deletion of 321 nucleotides of orf1 in pRA0846. Plasmid curing tests demonstrated that pRA0726 carried functional coding proteins for resistance to phenicol and β-lactam antimicrobials. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of presence of the floR and bla OXA-209 resistance genes in R. anatipestifer.
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