|Title:||Universal infant immunization and occult hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents: a population-based study||Authors:||HONG-YUAN HSU
|Keywords:||Adolescent; Child; Female; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis B Core Antigens; Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; Hepatitis B virus; Humans; Infant; Male; Hepatitis B Vaccines; Immunization||Issue Date:||Apr-2015||Publisher:||WILEY-BLACKWELL||Source:||Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)||Abstract:||
To determine whether universal infant immunization affects occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI), serum samples from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative subjects <18 years enrolled during six sequential seroepidemiological surveys conducted between 1984 (just before universal infant immunization) and 2009 were analyzed. Study subjects were divided into unvaccinated cohorts (born before 1984) and vaccinated cohorts (born after 1984). HBV-DNA positivity was determined by positivity of nested polymerase chain reaction in at least two of three regions (pre-S, S, and pre-core/core genes). OBI frequency was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)-negative subjects (0 of 392 [0%] vs. 4 of 218 [1.8%]; P = 0.007), tended to be higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated anti-HBc-positive subjects (16 of 334 [4.8%] vs. 3 of 181 [1.7%]; P = 0.072), and was higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated subjects seropositive for both antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc (13 of 233 [5.6%] vs. 3 of 170 [1.8%]; P = 0.025). By using known anti-HBc seropositivity rate in children in our serosurveys, the estimated OBI frequency per 10(4) HBsAg-negative subjects declined from 160.7 in unvaccinated cohorts to 11.5 in vaccinated cohorts. In vaccinated cohorts, OBI frequency was higher in anti-HBc-positive subjects than in anti-HBc-negative subjects (16 of 334 [4.8%] vs. 0 of 392 [0%]; P < 0.001). Subjects with OBI had much lower viral load (P < 0.001) and a trend of higher mutation rates in "a" determinant of HBsAg than age-comparable, HBsAg-positive subjects.
|Appears in Collections:||醫學系|
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