|Title:||Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids||Authors:||Lu H.-C.
|Keywords:||diffusion coefficient;electrochemistry;electrochromic devices (ECDs);gel electrolytes;ionic liquids;polymer electrolytes;UV-curing;viologens||Issue Date:||2016||Journal Volume:||8||Journal Issue:||44||Start page/Pages:||30351-30361||Source:||ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces||Abstract:||
Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (£_T = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (£_T = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (£_T = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (£_T = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial £_T). ? 2016 American Chemical Society.
|Appears in Collections:||化學工程學系|
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