|Title:||Adenosine A<inf>2A</inf> receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina||Authors:||Huang, Pin Chien
Hsiao, Yu Tien
Kao, Shao Yen
Chen, Ching Feng
Chen, Yu Chieh
Chiang, Chung Wei
Lee, Chien Fei
Lu, Juu Chin
|Issue Date:||28-Apr-2014||Publisher:||PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE||Journal Volume:||9||Journal Issue:||4||Source:||PLoS ONE||Abstract:||
Background: Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A 2A receptor (A2AR) regulates retinal waves and whether A2AR regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. Methodology/Principal Findings: We showed that A2AR was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A2AR decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca 2+ transients, suggesting that endogenous A2AR may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A2AR acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca2+ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A2AR (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A2AR may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A 2AR-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A2AR may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A 2AR mutant (A2AR-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A2AR-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A2AR in SACs is required for A 2AR up-regulation of retinal waves. Conclusions/Significance: A 2AR up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by coupling with the downstream intracellular signaling, A2AR may have a great capacity to modulate patterned spontaneous activity during neural circuit refinement. © 2014 Huang et al.
|Appears in Collections:||分子與細胞生物學研究所|
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