|Title:||Seasonal variation of chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter at a high-elevation subtropical forest in East Asia||Authors:||Lee, Celine S L
Chou, C C-K
Cheung, H C
CHUN-YI (Joyce) TSAI
|Keywords:||Mountain-valley circulations; Nitrogen oxidation ratio; PM(2.5); Subtropical forest; Sulfur oxidation ratio; Urban air pollution||Issue Date:||Mar-2019||Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD||Journal Volume:||246||Start page/Pages:||668-677||Source:||Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)||Abstract:||
The aim of this study was to chemically characterize the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at a subtropical forest in East Asia under the influences of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and a complex topographic setting. Four seasonal campaigns were conducted at the Xitou Experimental Forest in central Taiwan from the winter of 2013 to the autumn of 2014. The results indicated that the ambient levels and chemical features of PM2.5 exhibited pronounced seasonal variations. Non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) constituted the major component of PM2.5, followed by ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) during winter, summer and autumn. However, it was revealed that the mass fraction of NO3- increased to be comparable with that of nss-SO42- in springtime. The mass contribution of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to PM2.5 peaked in summer (13.2%), inferring the importance of enhanced photo-oxidation reactions in SOC formation. Diurnal variations of O3 and SO2 coincided with each other, suggesting the transport of aged pollutants from distant sources, whereas CO and NOx were shown to be under the influences of both local and regional sources. Notably high sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) were observed, which were 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.39 ± 0.20, respectively. Precursor gases (i.e. SO2 and NOx) could be converted to sulfate and nitrate during the transport by the uphill winds. Furthermore, due to the high relative humidity at Xitou, enhanced aqueous-phase and/or heterogeneous reactions could further contribute to the formation of sulfate and nitrate at the site. This study demonstrated the significant transport of urban pollutants to a subtropical forest by the mountain-valley circulations as well as the long-range transport from regional sources, whereas the implications of which for regional climate change necessitated further investigation.
|Appears in Collections:||環境與職業健康科學研究所|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.