|Multi-timescale phase-amplitude couplings in transitions of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness
|NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Under general anesthesia (GA), advanced analysis methods enhance the awareness of the electroencephalography (EEG) signature of transitions from consciousness to unconsciousness. For nonlinear and nonstationary signals, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) works as a dyadic filter bank to reserve local dynamical properties in decomposed components. Moreover, cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling analysis illustrates that the coupling between the phase of low-frequency components and the amplitude of high-frequency components is correlated with the brain functions of sensory detection, working memory, consciousness, and attentional selection. To improve the functions of phase-amplitude coupling analysis, we utilized a multi-timescale approach based on EMD to assess changes in brain functions in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness using a measure of phase-amplitude coupling. Two groups of patients received two different anesthetic recipes (with or without ketamine) during the induction period of GA. Long-term (low-frequency) coupling represented a common transitional process of brain functions from consciousness to unconsciousness with a decay trend in both groups. By contrast, short-term coupling reflected a reverse trend to long-term coupling. However, the measures of short-term coupling also reflected a higher degree of coupling for the group with ketamine compared with that without ketamine. In addition, the coupling phase is a factor of interest. The phases for different combinations of coupling components showed significant changes in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The coupling between the delta-band phase and the theta-band amplitude changed from in-phase to out-phase coupling during the induction process from consciousness to unconsciousness. The changes in the coupling phase in EEG signals were abrupt and sensitive in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness.
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