|Role of D2 dopamine receptor in adrenal cortical cell proliferation and aldosterone-producing adenoma tumorigenesis
|Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the two characteristic types of primary aldosteronism. Dysregulation of adrenal cortical cell proliferation contributes to both diseases. We previously demonstrated that APA expressed less dopamine D2 receptor than the respective non-tumor tissue and might contribute to the overproduction of aldosterone. As activation of D2 receptor inhibits the proliferation of various cells, downregulation of D2 receptor in APA may play a role in the tumorigenesis of APA. In this study, we demonstrate that D2 receptor plays a role in angiotensin II (AII)- stimulated adrenal cortical cell proliferation. The D2 receptor agonist, bromocriptine, inhibited AII-stimulated cell proliferation in primary cultures of the normal human adrenal cortex and APA through attenuating AII-induced phosphorylation of PK-stimulated cyclin D1 protein expression and cell proliferation. D2 receptor also inhibited AII-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to inhibiting aldosterone synthesis/production, D2 receptor exerts an anti-proliferative effect in adrenal cortical and APA cells by attenuating PKCμ and ERK phosphorylation. The lower level of expression of D2 receptor in APA may augment cell proliferation and plays a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of APA. Our novel finding suggests a new therapeutic target for primary aldosteronism.? 2014 Society for Endocrinology.
|aldosterone-producing adenoma; cell proliferation; dopamine receptor; protein kinase C; Adenoma; Adrenal Cortex; Adrenal Gland Neoplasms; Aldosterone; Carcinogenesis; Cell Cycle; Cell Proliferation; Cells, Cultured; Cyclin D1; Flavonoids; Humans; Immunoblotting; Isoenzymes; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Phosphorylation; Protein Kinase C; Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; Receptors, Dopamine D2
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