|Title:||Gender-related differences in chronic kidney disease-associated vascular calcification risk and potential risk mediators: A scoping review||Authors:||Wu, Patrick Yihong
Lee, Szu Ying
|Keywords:||Aortic calcification | Chronic kidney disease | Dialysis | End-stage renal disease | Fetuin-A | Fibroblast growth factor-23 | Gender | Klotho | Mineral bone disorder | Osteoprotegerin | Sclerostin | Sex | Valvular calcification | Vascular calcification | Vitamin D||Issue Date:||1-Aug-2021||Journal Volume:||9||Journal Issue:||8||Source:||Healthcare (Switzerland)||Abstract:||
Vascular calcification (VC) involves the deposition of calcium apatite in vascular intima or media. Individuals of advanced age, having diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly at risk. The pathogenesis of CKD-associated VC evolves considerably. The core driver is the phenotypic change involving vascular wall constituent cells toward manifestations similar to that undergone by osteoblasts. Gender-related differences are observed regarding the expressions of osteogenesis-regulating effectors, and presumably the prevalence/risk of CKD-associated VC exhibits gender-related differences as well. Despite the wealth of data focusing on gender-related differences in the risk of atherosclerosis, few report whether gender modifies the risk of VC, especially CKD-associated cases. We systematically identified studies of CKD-associated VC or its regula-tors/modifiers reporting data about gender distributions, and extracted results from 167 articles. A significantly higher risk of CKD-associated VC was observed in males among the majority of original investigations. However, substantial heterogeneity exists, since multiple large-scale studies yielded neutral findings. Differences in gender-related VC risk may result from variations in VC assessment methods, the anatomical segments of interest, study sample size, and even the ethnic origins of participants. From a biological perspective, plausible mediators of gender-related VC differences include body composition discrepancies, alterations involving lipid profiles, inflammatory severity, diversities in matrix Gla protein (MGP), soluble Klotho, vitamin D, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and osteoprotegerin levels. Based on our findings, it may be inappropriate to monotonously assume that male patients with CKD are at risk of VC compared to females, and we should consider more background in context before result interpretation.
|Appears in Collections:||醫學院附設醫院 (臺大醫院)|
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