|Title:||Antisiphon device: a review of existing mechanisms and clinical applications to prevent overdrainage in shunted hydrocephalic patients||Authors:||Huang, An-Ping
|Keywords:||Hydrocephalus; antisiphon device; mechanism; overdrainage; review; slit ventricle; ventriculoperitoneal shunt||Issue Date:||16-Aug-2021||Source:||Biomedical journal||Abstract:||
Overdrainage of cerebrospinal fluid is one of the most notorious complications after ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. Siphon effect plays a major role in the development of overdrainage. Various overdrainage-preventing devices have been invented to counteract the siphon effect. Though some of the devices are designed to reduce the flow instead of providing antisiphoning effect, they are generally called antisiphon devices (ASDs). The basics of siphoning, the mechanisms and physical properties of currently available devices are described in this article. The clinical efficacy, shunt survival, and considerations on patient factors are also discussed. There are three kinds of ASD design, diaphragm, gravitational, and flow reducing devices. Flow reducing ASD is always open and the flow it controls is relatively stable. On the other hand, it may not provide sufficient flow in nocturnal intracranial pressure elevations. Diaphragm and gravitational devices are sensitive to the position of the patients. Diaphragm device is sensitive to the external pressure and the relative position of the device to the mastoid process. The gravitational device is sensitive to the angle between the axis of the device and the head. Many studies showed encouraging results with gravitational devices. Studies regarding diaphragm devices either showed better or similar outcomes comparing to differential pressure valves. Clinical studies regarding flow-reducing devices and head-to-head comparison between different mechanisms are warranted. This review aims to provide a useful reference for clinical practice of hydrocephalus.
|Appears in Collections:||醫學系|
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