摘要：眾所周知，農作物之氮（N）利用效率不佳。在全球範圍內，用於耕作系統的氮肥中，約有50％未被植物吸收，而是作為氨（NH3），硝酸鹽（NO3-）和一氧化二氮（N2O）排放到環境中，N2O是比二氧化碳更能聚熱達300倍的溫室氣體，因此提高了農業生產成本並加劇污染和氣候變化。 這些損失是由NH3的揮發以及土壤微生物（主要是細菌和古細菌）催化的硝化 (nitrification) 和反硝化 (denitrification) 反應矩陣所驅動的。 大量的研究已經顯示，合成型硝化抑制劑 (Synthetic Nitrification Inhibitor, SNI) 如: 雙氰胺（DCD）及3,4-二甲基唑磷酸酯（DMPP），其若搭配銨基肥料一起使用可以有效減少施肥農業領域中一氧化二氮（N2O）的排放，同時提高作物產量和氮的利用率。合成型硝化抑製劑的施用顯著增加了土壤無機氮含量；將土壤中主要的無機氮形式從硝酸鹽轉變為銨鹽；並傾向於增加地上植物之溶解有機碳含量、作物產量、地上生物量和氮素吸收。許多過去文獻顯示合成型硝化抑製劑在提高農作物種植系統之產量和氮素利用效率以及減少N2O排放方面起了相當大之作用。 而近年，討論透過植物根系所滲出之生物型硝化抑製劑（Biological Nitrification Inhibitor, BNI）以減輕農業氮素流失之有害及浪費過程也逐漸成為至關重要之研究主題。本研究希望能夠搜集關於SNI與BNI研究新領域中之主要最新發現，包括BNI化合物及其特異性與其運輸，並嘗試了解並釐清SNI與BNI之間之交互作用，以進一步了解其改善農業，同時減少對環境影響方面之作用與發展前景。
Abstract: As we all know, the nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency of crops is poor. Globally, about 50% of the nitrogen fertilizer used in farming systems is not absorbed by plants, but is emitted into the environment as ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-) and nitrous oxide (N2O), N2O It is a greenhouse gas that can gather heat 300 times more than carbon dioxide, thus increasing the cost of agricultural production and exacerbating pollution and climate change. These losses are driven by the volatilization of NH3 and the nitrification and denitrification reaction matrix catalyzed by soil microorganisms (mainly bacteria and archaea). A large number of previous studies have shown that Synthetic Nitrification Inhibitors (SNIs) such as dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), if used together with ammonium fertilizer, it can effectively reduce the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the agricultural field of fertilization, and at the same time increase crop yield and nitrogen utilization. The application of synthetic nitrification inhibitors significantly increases the soil inorganic nitrogen content; changes the main inorganic nitrogen form in the soil from nitrate to ammonium salt; and tends to increase the dissolved organic carbon content of aboveground plants, crop yield, aboveground biomass and nitrogen absorption. Many past documents show that synthetic nitrification inhibitors play a considerable role in improving the yield and nitrogen use efficiency of crop planting systems and reducing N2O emissions. In recent years, the discussion of the biological nitrification inhibitor (BNI) exuded through plant roots to reduce the harmful and wasteful process of agricultural nitrogen loss has gradually become a vital research topic. This study aims to collect the main latest findings in the novel research field of SNI and BNI, including BNI compounds and their specificity and transport. We try to understand and clarify the interaction between SNI and BNI, in order to further understand its improvement in agriculture, and at the same time, unravel the role and development prospects of reducing environmental impact.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction
Nitrogen use efficiency