摘要：臺北市政府工務局大地工程處推動山坡地自主防災自102年迄今即將邁入第八年，在全球氣候變遷的環境條件下，不僅極端氣候事件發生率提高、其強度亦增強，各種天然災害威脅人民生命財產安全，其中又因人為操作或不當開發行為所導致的坡地災害最為嚴重。近年來政府全國性防災計畫，多數以災害潛勢評估、分析與現地調查為主，本計畫之性質乃為輔導山坡地社區防災體質之加強，尤其針對自主防災之觀念與作為，以及防救災組織之建立，關切保全對象，進而研擬社區防救災調適策略。本團隊檢視臺北市各地處坡地社區，已有40處社區投入山坡地自主防災；然而面對50處管制社區仍有將近一半的社區僅有法律規範之消防自衛編組，其居民對災害所造成威脅及災時應變能力皆無相關知識，且欠缺系統性訓練的防救災組織，故有持續推動自主防災計畫之急迫性。在全球氣候變遷之際，極端氣候事件發生率及強度皆增加，各種天然災害威脅著人民生命財產安全，其中又以因人為操作或不當開發行為所導致的坡地災害最為嚴重。藉由本計畫推動期能在災害發生前各坡地社區民眾有自主防災意識，提升水土保持維護之實務技巧，且於災害發生時，公部門力量尚未進場前，社區擁有自主防災之緊急應變能力，以降低損傷，提昇社區民眾應對坡地防災之自主防救災應變及行動能力，達到減災、整備、應變與復原能力的總目標。 在災時，常因等待救援時間而使許多居民錯失脫離危險的寶貴機會，更顯現出第一時間社區防災自救的重要性。0206花蓮地震中便有諸多居民靠鄰里協力自救脫困，亦因防災教育之推廣避免了許多二次災害發生的可能性，足見近年各方團隊致力於社區自主防災與校園防災教育的推廣成效。然而仍可從各類媒體中看出自救之組織性若更加嚴密，可使搜救人員更能有效具焦於災害熱點。有鑑於此，應持續推動防災社區；使社區在災害發生前能有自主防災意識，並於災害發生時，公部門力量尚未進場前，社區擁有自主防災之緊急應變能力，以降低損傷，提昇社區民眾應對坡地防災之自主防救災應變及行動能力，達到減災、整備與應變能力的總合目標。 承繼過去之推動經驗，臺北市政府工務局大地工程處於本年度推動109年度臺北市山坡地社區自主防災水土保持宣導及優良社區選拔委託專業服務案，內容包括自主社區推動、校園防災宣導、優良社區選拔及頒獎、防災社區實地考察教育訓練、編撰社區疏散避難計畫及自主防災成果手冊、建置坡地社區自主防災在地化情資研判系統、購置防災宣導品等以提升各社區之軟硬體自主防災能力。
Abstract: The Geotechnical Engineering Office of the Taipei Municipal Government ’s Works Bureau promotes the automatic disaster prevention of hillsides. It is about to enter its eighth year since it was restored in 102 years. Under the global climate change environment, the incidence of extreme weather events has increased, its intensity has also increased, and various natural disaster threats The property security of the people`s government, among which the sloping land disasters caused by man-made operations or improper development activities are the most serious. The national government`s national disaster prevention plans are mostly based on disaster potential assessment, analysis, and on-site investigations. The nature of this plan is to strengthen the disaster prevention community of hillside communities, especially the concepts and actions of autonomous disaster prevention, and The establishment of disaster prevention and relief organizations, and the preservation target, uniformly studied the proposed community disaster prevention and adjustment strategies. The existing 40 communities have been automatically protected from hillsides. In the face of 50 regulated communities, nearly half of the communities have only fire protection self-defense groups that have the door to legal regulations. Their residents have no threat to the disaster and the ability to respond to the disaster. Relevant knowledge and lack of systematic training of disaster prevention and relief organizations, it is imperative to continue to promote autonomous disaster prevention plans. In the context of global climate change, the incidence and intensity of extreme weather events have increased. Various natural disasters threaten the safety of people`s lives and property. Among them, slope disasters caused by man-made operations or improper development activities are the most serious. Through the promotion period of this plan, the people in the slope communities before the disaster will have self-awareness of disaster prevention and improve the practical skills of soil and water conservation. At the time of the disaster, the community has the emergency response capability of autonomous disaster prevention before the public sector forces have entered the site. In order to reduce injuries, improve the community`s voluntary disaster prevention and response capacity and action capacity to respond to sloping field disaster prevention, and achieve the overall goal of disaster reduction, improvement, resilience and recovery. In the 0206 Hualien earthquake, many residents rely on their neighbors to help themselves to get out of poverty. Because of disaster prevention, it is also important. During the disaster, many residents missed the precious opportunity to escape from danger because of waiting for rescue time. Consequences of community disaster prevention and self-rescue. The education method avoids the possibility of many secondary disasters, which shows that in recent years, each group has been committed to the promotion of community-based disaster prevention and campus disaster prevention education. If the organization that can still grind self-rescue from all kinds of media is more stringent, in response to this, the disaster prevention community should continue to be promoted; so that the community can have an autonomous disaster prevention awareness before the disaster, and therefore when the disaster occurs, the public sector forces have not yet advanced Before the venue, the community has the emergency response capacity of the independent disaster prevention method to reduce the harm and improve the community`s ability to respond to the disaster prevention and catastrophic change of the sloping field, and achieve the overall goal of disaster reduction, maintenance and resilience. Inheriting past driving experience, the Geotechnical Engineering Department of the Taipei Municipal Government`s Works Bureau is promoting this year`s 109 Taipei Hillside Community community`s automatic disaster prevention and soil conservation promotion and excellent community selection commissioned professional service cases, which include independent community promotion, campus disaster prevention promotion, excellent Community selection and awards, field visits, education and training for disaster prevention communities, compilation of community evacuation plans and automatic disaster prevention results manuals, establishment of local community-based disaster prevention information research and judgment systems for sloping communities, and purchase of disaster prevention information products to enhance the softness of communities Hardware autonomous disaster prevention capabilities.