本計畫將以批判地理學的視角以及文化研究的取向，試圖廣泛分析東亞全球化新興文化的一個重要層面，亦即全球城市底層人口流動及其生活空間的再現議題。以東亞的中港台三地為例，我將把薩森（Saskia Sassen）的全球城市研究置入哈維（David Harvey）所謂不均衡地理情境來理解。不僅要談典型全球城市二元階級的特色，更要延伸地理尺度，從全球大都會化、新區域主義、不均衡地理發展與國際分工的邏輯談全球化權力與資源分配如何在不同尺度上（鄉鎮、中小型城市、全球城市區域等等）造成人員流動，人文景觀與文化身份再現之差異。進而分析全球資本主義都會化捨政治隱含的意識型態與其造成的生活衝擊。
本文主要是想要用筆者建立的「非對稱地方分權」的架構，來理解複雜又動態的後毛時期中國都市與區域發展治理。所謂「非對稱地方分權」，是中國的一種特殊的中央地方關係，在經濟領域上的地方分權伴隨的是，在政治領域上的中央集權於黨機器中。本計畫提擬三個不同又高度相關的研究議題作為研究次主題：第一是有關的由上而下的區域整合 (如對口支援、幹部輪調等)與由下而上 的地域競爭；其二是有關從創新擴散的角度，進行公部門地方治理創新能力 (如中國地方治理) 與私部門創新能力擴散 (如高科技廠商) 的比較研究；其三則是中國不同層級政府 之間的再尺度研究 (如行政重區劃、弱市強縣互動、跨省監督與制衡、省級權力再結構等)。本計畫以中國的地方治理創新為主題，將預期可以對地理學，行政管理,環境規劃，都市與區域研究,發展研究，以及中國與東亞研究等現有文獻，進行一些理論討論與田野經驗上的貢獻。本計劃預計出版三到四篇文章,論文完成後除將參加國際與國內學術會議發表研究成果之外，其中兩篇則已經是獲得同意成為未來兩本學術出版書籍中的兩章，另外一到二篇也會在修改會議論文後投遞國內外學術期刊發表，日後並將集結論文積極尋求出版專書的可能。
Abstract: History, identity, and living experiences of
Taiwanese “Old Timers” in Canada
Lan-hung Nora Chiang
Although recent Canadian census provides a numerical count of immigrants of Chinese origin, they do not reflect the vastly different backgrounds of the Chinese people who migrated to Canada from diversified origins. In my view, Taiwanese (Taiwan-born and migrants from Taiwan) are still an understudied ethnic group. From my fieldwork from 2004-2006 in Vancouver and Toronto, I found that the Taiwanese community in Canada is actually differentiated by the time of arrival, reasons for migration, third countries of origin other than their homelands, and response to different legislation in both Taiwan and Canada. This study will fill in the gap in the existing literature on diaspora Chinese, by adding the history, identity and living experiences, and inter-ethnic relationships of the Taiwanese “old timers” who migrated to Canada between 1966 and 1989.
Although several empirical studies have been carried out on the Taiwanese so far, including a survey by the OCAC, their methodology is traditional and may at best provide us with a snapshot of Taiwanese interviewed over a short period of time. The major flaw of such survey is lack of empathy of the experience of the interviewees/narrators, and over-assumption in the structured interviews, within limited time spent on fieldwork. No attention has been paid to the voices of the earlier group who arrived from 1966 to 1989 before the wave of “new” Asian immigrants who arrived in large numbers since the late eighties.
The first objective of this research is to provide an historical overview of Taiwanese in Canada, with a discussion of their process of integration into Canadian society, and their reaction to legislations both in Taiwan and Canada. With such a background, the second objective is to carry out a qualitative study using oral history method to answer questions such as place identity, lived experiences, and sense of belonging to the host environment. The third objective is to investigate relationship between sub-ethnics, focusing on Mainlander Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hongkongers.
Working with local Taiwanese-Canadian collaborators through the Taiwanese-Canadian Association, the Presbyterian church, and Taiwanese Canadian Cultural Societies in Vancouver, Toronto, and Calgary, the three gateway cities where “old-timer” Tawanese-Canadians are concentrated, it is hoped that the three main objectives would be addressed in three years.
An in-depth understanding of various aspects of the “old-timers” would be useful for policy makers in both Taiwan and Canada. It is hoped that the research would result in papers read in Population Association of America, Association of American Geographers; and published in Social and Cultural Geography, Global Networks, International Migration Review, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, and International Journal of Population Geography. Ultimately, this study of Diaspora Taiwanese in the age of globalization would help to enrich the literature on Diasporic Chinese.
An Emergent Culture of East Asian Globalization: Problematic of the Representations of
the Underclass in the Context of Mega-urbanization
Tsung-Yi Michelle Huang
I seek to theorize in this 3-year project that the labor regimes of globalization produce plural transmigrants that require representations and recognition. In the grand narratives of globalization, the articulation of transnational people flow, which is often associated with such positive terms as borderlessness, openness, de-centeredness and flexibility, actually always involves politics of exclusion. While the privileged professional managerial class takes center stage, the migratory flows of the underclass are often hidden from sight, left without resources for self-articulation. In view of the discursive absence of cultural representations and official recognition of the global underclass, I attempt to explore, with a critical geographic perspective, one of the most significant aspects of the emergent cultures of East Asian globalization, the migration of the underprivileged people and their lived space of everyday life in a few cultural texts. Saskia Sassen’s research on the duality of the global city and David Harvey’s theory of uneven geographical developments will be drawn on to comprehend the specificities of transmigrants in my case studies, Hong Kong, Taiwan and China. Specifically, I will tease out and explain the complicated relationships between the filmic representations of migratory flows and the geography of capitalist reorganization, which results in uneven developments within and across various scales in multiple locals both in terms of social resources and cultural recognition.
Rescaling Dynamics of Local Governances in China-
A Perspective of Asymmetric Decentralization
With a perspective of ‘asymmetric decentralization’, the proposal is to pay attention to the rescaling dynamics of urban and regional governances under the context of post-Mao China. The perspective of ‘asymmetric decentralization’, which is different from the ‘symmetric decentralization’ in the west, describes a particular political and economic relationship between local and central governments. With China as a case study, there is economic decentralization to the local along with political centralization under the party, creating a rescaling dynamics of urban and regional governances in relation to local economic development. Three different but inter-related research topics are furthered addressed in the proposal: (1) centrally-coordinated regional cooperation and locally-initiated territorial competition, (2) a comparison between geographical diffusion of innovation- public sectors (local entrepreneurial governing capacity) vis-a-vis private sectors (innovations at the firm level), (3) rescaling political economy of local governances consisting of the central, provincial-level, prefecture-level, county-level agents.