摘要：美國貿易代表署（United States Trade Representative，USTR）於本（2018）年 1 月 22 日公布，根據美國國際貿易委員會（United States International Trade Commission，ITC）之調查認定，各國太陽能產品之進口已對其國內太陽能產業造成嚴重損害。因此，川普總統同意適用美國貿易法第 201 條款之規定，對輸銷至美國之太陽能矽晶電池與模組採行「全球防衛措施」（global safeguard），實施為期四年之關稅配額。是項舉措隨即引起包括中國、歐盟、南韓、墨西哥及我國等之關切。
我國太陽能電池產業之全球市占率已達約17%，為全球第二大生產國。同時，太陽能產業為我國近年來積極發展之再生能源產業，廣泛佈局海外通路，將矽晶太陽能電池與模組行銷全球市場，亦屬重要的政策方向。美國實施全球防衛措施對我國輸美貿易勢必產生重大影響。此外，美國曾對中國太陽能產品同時實施反傾銷稅與平衡稅之作法（雙反案）、世界貿易組織（World Trade Organization，以下簡稱WTO）爭端解決程序中各國太陽能產品貿易相關之爭議等，均突顯出貿易救濟措施、WTO合致性與再生能源發展等議題間之交錯關係及其重要性。
基此，本計畫從對太陽能產業實施貿易救濟措施之角度，提供WTO法律層面之分析。主要內容包括美國對中國同時課徵反傾銷稅與平衡稅所引致的WTO爭端解決案例、美國 201 條款之制度與實務（包括美國以往實施鋼鐵防衛措施案所產生之WTO案例）及美國對太陽能電池與模組實施全球防衛措施之法律問題。
Abstract: On January 22, 2018, the United States Trade Representative announced that the import of solar products from certain foreign countries materially injured domestic industries according to the determination of the United States International Trade Commission. On this account, President Trump decided to impose “global safeguard” measures on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules imported from other countries in the form of a four-year tariff rate quota. These measures triggered a lot of concerns from certain countries, including China, the European Union, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan.
The solar cell industry in Taiwan has a global market share as high as 17%, rendering it the second largest producer worldwide. In recent years, the government of Taiwan has put much effort on the promotion of renewable energy industries, including the solar cell industry. In addition, expanding overseas markets for solar cells and modules has also become one of the major policies of the government. Therefore, the imposition of the “global safeguard” measures may have a significant impact on Taiwan’s solar cell industry. In addition, several recent disputes at the World Trade Organization (hereinafter WTO) have highlighted key legal issues such as the use of trade remedies, its consistency with WTO rules as well as its relationship with the development of the renewable energy. For example, the United States has levied anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties simultaneously on imports of certain solar cells and panels from China, which has given rise to, among several other similar cases, disputes involved with solar-product transactions under the WTO dispute settlement body.
Against such background, this research project aims to analyze the use of trade remedies from the perspective of WTO law, especially the issues involving the solar cell industry. This research project will examine critical legal issues in the following three dimensions: First, relevant WTO disputes arising from the United States’ imposition of countervailing duties and anti-dumping duties on Chinese industries; second, WTO disputes concerning the application of Section 201 measures by the United States; and third, the legal issues regarding the safeguard measures on solar cells and modules taken by the United States.