The cognitive structures of Japanese TE (Hand)─An approach by cognitive linguistics─
|關鍵字:||框架;多義構造;換喻;隱喻;參照點;frame;polysemous structures;metonymy;metaphor;reference point||公開日期:||2007||摘要:||本論文的目的在於，就日語中身體部位詞「手」的多義構造及認知架構作一探討。過去的相關研究裡多從形態、音韻以及語義等角度來進行分析，其中，語義方面的研究又以字典上所列出的語義為主軸來進行。但是，這些研究並未針對各語義形成的原因及彼此間的關連性作一體系性的整理。此外，以語義分析為中心的相關研究中，重點多半聚焦在其多義的解釋上。不過，我們對於「手」的認知並非只反映在其多義性上，只要是含有「手」的表現，都可以看出我們人類對其認知的架構。因此，本論文除了探討「手」所擁有的多義之外，對於在認知「手」的同時，我們人類是透過何種視角與過程來進行認知活動等課題也一併列入探討。
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the polysemous structure and cognitive structure of the Japanese word, TE. The morphology, phonology and semantics are most common analysis tools employed in related research from literature survey. Among of those tools, the listed semantics in dictionary is core interests in the research of semantics. However, the motivation of semantics formation and interaction in between are not accentuated and in equitable justification in those research works. In addition, the most attentions in research of semantic analysis are mainly on the explanation of polysemy. Nevertheless, the understanding of TE in language expression is not only in response to polysemy explanation but also to cognitive structure. Therefore, in the present study, investigation of polysemy of TE was determined and discussed. Moreover, the subjects of cognitive activities with respect to human being’s aspect and process were also evaluated. Results of this study are summarized as following: 1.The way humans cognize the body part expression TE, which means “hand” in Japanese, can be considered through two kinds of cognitive processes; one is based on metonymical link which basically relies on spatial contiguity and conceptual contiguity with HANDS, and the other one is based on metaphorical link which relies on the similarity with our hands. The former is more productive than the latter and it has more related expressions in daily use. 2.Among those spatial concepts related to TE, there are some polysemous usages where TE means ‘human’ or ‘direction.’ Some of them are conceptualized based on the designation of TE’s spatial concepts. Compared with this, those expressions which are formed through the conceptual contiguity of TE, are highly related to the functional aspects of TE. 3.As a major intermediate tool of human action and behavior, the functional aspects of TE are profiled in the action frame. By examining the content of action and the result of action, we can figure out how the polysemy of TE has been created. Besides, the Japanese word, TE, can be even used to evaluate the content of behavior or the process, or the progress of behavior. 4.This paper concludes that the metaphorical expressions of TE, based on the cognition to the similarity with our hands, are conceptualized through human cognition to the position of hands, the shape of hands and the functions of hands. The concept mapping occurs between the source domain and target domain, based on similarity. We also find that more than one kind of similarities exist between those metaphorical expressions and TE.
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