The image of famous courtesans in“ Shikidookagami” and “Hankyozakki” The contraction of Yoshino and Li Xiang Jun －
|關鍵字:||江戶前期;明末清初;吉野;李香君;多情;俠氣;Early Edo Period;Late Ming Period;Yoshino;Li Xiang Jun,;benevolence;chivalry||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||吉野與李香君雖然都是十七世紀的名妓，但由於他們出身在不同國家，及身在江戶前期及明末清初這樣不同的時代背景，所以當時的文人們對於她們所期待的名妓形象也完全不同。她們兩人的文化特徴是「多情」與「俠氣」。為何「多情」與「侠氣」能成為中日兩國當時的文化美感主流呢？江戸初期由於對平安王朝時代的嚮往，以王朝時代美感所建構出來的妓院成為當時日本文人們頻繁往來之處。在日本王朝時代，恋愛是一種遊戲，多情且可與許多人陷入愛情是種風流倜黨的行為，因此江戶前期日本文人對於「多情」的嚮往，恐怕與王朝時代以來的傳統美感有關連吧。而明朝末年，由於考上科舉的可能性越來越低，而為擺脱科舉落榜的失意，以及想從儒教社會的繁瑣中獲得解脱，中國當時的文人們開始嚮往起自由自在且無拘無束的侠文化。而由於他們對侠文化的嚮往，他們開始藉由去妓院，藉著在奢華的妓院文化，玩樂展現他們豪氣與奢華。侠從自古以來就在中國庶民之間有廣大的人氣，被民眾們視為正義的化身。因此當時的文人應該想藉由成為俠，來發洩自己在科舉上的詩意與鬱鬱寡歡吧。因此吉野與李香君之所以能被文人們歌頌及能成為名妓的原因，應該就是因為她們的「多情」與「俠氣」正是文人們夢想與理想的關係吧。 因為本文兩國的重點就是想藉由比較吉野與李香君，來將中日兩國當時的文化美感及文化価値観更加具體化，所以希望能因為完成此論文，將十七世紀的中日文化美感之間的差異更加凸顯出來。
Although Yoshino and Li Xiang Jun lived in the same 17th century, they were brought up into two different countries, Japan and China, lived in two different backgrounds of the Japanese Edo period and at the turn of the Chinese Ming and Qing periods, and therefore also the expectations of the contemporary men of culture towards them as famous courtesans were entirely different. Characteristic features of the two ourtesans were “benevolence” and “chivalry”, but why has these two features taken the main place in the aesthetics of that time? At the beginning of the Edo period people were absorbed in the idea of the Heian court culture and they frequented the pleasure quarters created on the basis of the courtly sense of beauty. In the Heian period, love was a kind of a pleasant play and so being passionate and falling in love with many people was being considered as refined. Thus, it is possible that longing for the “benevolence” as seen in the early Edo period may be the influence of the Court period. In the same manner, at the end of the Ming period when the possibility passing examinations for the imperial clerks was declining, the literati of that time, starting from the wreckage, they were running away from anguish and restraints of the Confucian society and longing for the culture of gallantry. This longing has led them to the gorgeous and luxurious pleasure quarters, which have become one of the main stages of the pursue for the chivalry and gallantry. Chivalry was popular among eople in China from the ancient times and was worshiped as a hero. It is possible that the literati were trying to cheer themselves from the disappointment of the imperial clerk examinations by becoming chivalrous men. Therefore, the reason why Yoshino and Li Xiang Jun were praised by the men of culture was nothing else but the fact that they were famous courtesans and that they possessed both the “benevolence” and the “chivalry” which were the dream and ideal of the literati.he goal of my thesis is to present the aesthetics and the cultural sense of values in China and Japan of the 17th century by comparing the two courtesans. By completing my thesis I would like to put more light on the cultural sense of beauty in both countries in the 17th century.
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