The verbalization of Sino-Japanese words
|關鍵字:||漢語名詞;動詞化;事件性;動詞性;構成成分;詞性;階段性;意味内容;語用論;Sino-Japanese words;verbalization;eventuality;parts of speech;component;face;Semantics;Pragmatics;connective relation||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||本論文嘗試與先行研究不同的方法，針對漢語名詞動詞化之要因進行考察。本篇論文之前對於左右漢語動詞化要素之研究，主要歸納出是否含有動詞性成分，為判斷漢語是否動詞化之首要條件。但根據筆者的經驗和考察，有不少不含動詞性成分卻動詞化的漢語，如「紅葉、矛盾、無理」，以及含有動詞性成分卻不能動詞化的漢語，如「愛国、敬神、発着」。 以往的研究，將上述符合含動詞性成分卻無法動詞化，以及不含動詞性成分卻動詞化的漢語，視為原則中的例外而未深入探討；研究對象則只限於能夠動詞化之漢語。本論文將能夠動詞化與不能動詞化之漢語同時納入研究對象，並且加入新的觀點和方法，對於先行研究所不能解釋的漢語作更進一步的考察。第三章從構成成分的結合關係以及詞性對所有漢語作調查與探討，第四章深入語義層面從事件所表達的階段性作探討，第五章接續第四章的語義考察，更深一層討論動詞性的核心性質。第四章和第五章的語義考察為本研究最大特色，不單依據字典的單詞解釋，更以實際例句為主要的語義分析依據。另外，從前的研究未能對左右動詞化的關鍵要素，也就是動詞性，作出明確定義。本論文參考小矢野(1995)的「事件性」並對之作出本論文的解釋和定義，推測「事件性」是可以衡量動詞性的基準，可用來判斷漢語動詞化與否。 考察結果發現，構成成分的結合關係比構成成分中是否和有動詞性成分更容易左右動詞化與否。同時，除了結合關係和事件階段性這兩項因素，若能再加上「事件性」之強弱的判定，可更準確判斷該漢語可否動詞化。
This thesis examines essential factors for the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words in a way different from the preceding studies which focus on verbal character, aspect and volitionality of these words. In these previous researches, verbal character is considered as the most important element for the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words. However, many verbs of this kind do not have a verbal character, and there are still some Sino-Japanese words which cannot be regarded as verbs although they do have a verbal character. For example, Sino-Japanese verbs such as “kouyou”(autumn leaves turn yellow or red), “mujun”(be inconsistent with) and “muri”(overwork) do not have a verbal character, and some Sino-Japanese words which do have a verbal character like “aikoku”(patriotism), “hattyaku”(arrival and departure) are not viewed as verbs. In the previous studies, these Sino-Japanese words mentioned above are simply treated as exceptions of grammatical rules, and these studies concentrate only on Sino-Japanese verbs. In this thesis those non-verb Sino-Japanese words are taken into consideration and compared with Sino-Japanese verbs from a new point of view. Chapter 3 explores the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words by the formation and categories of their morphemes, while Chapter 4 by their phases of action, and Chapter 5 by word definitions. Especially Chapter 4 and 5 are the main features of this thesis, which differs from the previous studies by analyzing the examples of Sino-Japanese nouns pragmatically. Furthermore, since there was no explicit semantic definition for verbal character of Sino-Japanese verbs in preceding researches, while approving that verbal character facilitates the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words, this thesis adopts the term “eventuality” by Koyano(1995) and re-defines it, thus clarifying the relationships between eventuality and verbal character. In the end, this thesis concludes that as to the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words, it is clear that the formation of morphemes affects more than the categories of them. Moreover, although it is effective to judge the verbalization of Sino-Japanese words by the formation of morphemes and phases of action, the judgment will be more precise if eventuality is also taken into consideration.
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