The adoption of Confucianism in medieval Japan -focusing on The Contents of the 99 Codes of Conduct of Takeda Nobushige
|關鍵字:||甲斐武田家;武士家訓;儒學;臨濟宗;實用主義;Kai-Takeda clan;family precepts;Confucianism;Rinzai;pragmatism||公開日期:||2012||摘要:||從鐮倉時代起，因著武家政權的成立，武士在日本中世社會內扮演著主導性的地位。而新興的武士階層為了留給其子孫教訓，或是規範家臣團，而開始撰寫家訓。進入戰國時代後社會激劇變化，因此為了使其家族適應生存於戰亂的環境而製作家訓的武士也隨之增多。另一方面，被稱為新佛教的禪宗的其中一支派臨濟宗於鐮倉時代時傳來日本，成為武士思想的主體並在武士間被廣為信仰，而當時日本的禪僧在思想上其實是「儒佛合一」式。進入戰國時代後，武將們發現到在戰亂之世生存時人格修養的實用性及其必要性，因而武將們拜禪僧為師，藉由儒學及禪學培養其人格修養。而在戰國時代的家訓中，儒學影響最深者即為甲斐武田家的大名武田信玄 （晴信）之弟武田信繁所撰寫的「武田信繁九十九條家訓」。
During the Kamakura period, due to the rise of the samurai government, samurais gained leading roles in the political rulings of medieval Japan. Samurais, as new elites, began to compose family precepts for the upbringing and ruling of their offsprings and vassals. In the Sengoku period, Japan went through severe social-political changes, causing more and more samurais to compose family precepts, hoping to guide their family through the difficult political environment. Meanwhile, the “Rinzai school” Buddism, a branch of the Zen sect of Buddhism, was introduced to Japan as “New Buddism” during the Kamakura period. The Rinzai school soon constructed the main beliefs in medieval Bushido, and was widely embraced by samurais. At that time, the mainstream discipline followed by Japanese monks was actually a mixture of Confucianism and Buddism. In the Sengoku period, samurais began to realize the pragmatical importance of the culturing of honor and virtue. Many of them then studied under Zen monks for the teachings of Confucianism and Buddism. Among all family precepts from the Sengoku period, the one most influenced by Confucianism was "The 99 codes of conduct of Takeda Nobushige," written by Takeda Nobushige, brother of the leader of the Takeda clan in Kai Province, Takeda Shingen (Harunobu). This thesis explores the medieval Japanese interpretation of Confucianism by discussing the thoughts and beliefs of the Kai-Takeda brothers, with focuses on Takeda Shingen’s understanding of Chinese culture and the contents of The 99 codes of conduct of Takeda Nobushige. Quotes from the Analects of Confucius in “The 99 codes” were compared with the main teachings of Takeda Nobushige. Differences between Takeda Nobushige’s interpretation of the Analects of Confucius and its original meanings, along with the contents of Takeda’s teaching, reflect the Confucian influence on the Kai-Takeda clan. When placed in the social-political background of the Sengoku period, the thoughts and beliefs of the Takeda brothers indicate the assertive attitute samurais of the Sengoku period hold towards adopting Confucianism.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。