A Study in the Changes of Takeuchi Yoshimi's Perception of Asia
|關鍵字:||竹內好;魯迅;中國近代;亞洲主義;近代批判;Takeuchi Yoshimi;Lu Xun;Modern China;Asianism;Criticism of modernity||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||竹內好在當時以研究舊漢學與支那學為主的學術思潮中，開啟了近現代中國文學研究的道路。此外，相對於戰後日本知識份子以近代主義與西歐思潮理論為主流，竹內批判日本放棄「抵抗」追隨「近代化」，實行「脫亞入歐」。他以中國作為思考基準，提出相異的論點，試著藉由探明其本質，找出「健全的亞洲認識」。竹內的思想根源與中國關係深遠，他自身立足於對中國認識，確立了對近代日本的批判意識。 〈中國的近代與日本的近代〉文中，竹內論述了他對東西文明的理解以及其關聯性，藉由比較中國與日本的近代，指出日本欠缺主體性的事實。另外，竹內也透過魯迅，發現了「抵抗的亞洲意象、掙扎的形象」此一問題雛形。 〈作為方法的亞洲〉一文，主要延續〈中國的近代與日本的近代〉的思想脈絡，再行構築「亞洲認識」。「亞洲主義」在〈中國的近代與日本的近代〉與（作為方法的亞洲）則是有著指標性的位置，竹內以「近代超克」作為思想基底，再行抽取歐洲與亞洲之間的對抗關係。根據竹內好的論述，我們可以理解到，亞洲之所以成為亞洲，便是源於對歐洲的抵抗。並且他在中國發現「抵抗」的本質，在「抵抗的中國」發現了「亞洲的主體性」。 本論以竹內好所寫〈中國的近代與日本的近代〉、〈作為方法的亞洲〉、〈亞洲主義的展望〉等三篇文章為主，旨在探討竹內好的亞洲認識。
Takeuchi Yoshimi’s studies in modern Chinese literature breathed new life into traditional Sinology in Japan. In contrast to supports of modernism and contemporary political theories from west Europe by most Japanese postwar scholars, Takeuchi Yoshimi denounced that Japan gave up “defenses” and embraced the idea of “leave Asia to join Europe”with open arms. At the same time, he took China as the pillar of his theories, brought up new ideas in order to find out a “neutral perception of Asia”. Takeuchi Yoshimi’s political theories are constructed on close relationships with China. He used his own perception of China as a tool to form his criticisms of modern Japan. In ‘Chinese Modernity and Japanese Modernity’, Takeuchi Yoshimi stated his views of eastern and western culture, as well as the relationships between them. By comparing the modernity of China and Japan, he indicated that Japan does not have its own independent direction as a nation. He also came to being aware of the issue that “the images of Asia in resistance and struggle”. The article ‘Asia as a Method’ followed the basic theories mentioned in ‘Chinese Modernity and Japanese Modernity’ to reconstruct the “perception of Asia”. Asianism plays an important role in both ‘Chinese Modernity and Japanese Modernity’ and ‘Asia as a Method’. Takeuchi Yoshimi used “overcoming modernity” as the base of his theory, and tried to portrait the competitive relationship between Europe and Asia. Through his articles, we may realize that distinguished features of Asia are actually existed on the premise of resistance to Europe. Takeuchi Yoshimi found the nature of ‘resistance’ in China, and further more saw the ‘independent direction of Asia’ in ‘China in resistance’. This study focused on three articles, ‘Chinese Modernity and Japanese Modernity’, ‘Asia as a Method’, and ‘A Survey of Asianism’, to figure out Takeuchi Yoshimi’s perception of Asia.
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