The Japanized Taiwanese: A Study on Government Controlled Literature in the late WWII Period
|關鍵字:||國策文學;殖民地文學;日治時期;太平洋戰爭;皇民化;國家認同;文學形象;Government Controlled Literature;Colonial Literature;Taiwan under Japanese rule;Pacific War;Japanization;national identity;literary image||公開日期:||2015||摘要:|| 西元1895年，台灣成為日本帝國第一個殖民地。自此之後的五十年，台灣與日本共有一段歷史經驗。殖民統治後期，從日中戰爭到太平洋戰爭，時局的動盪及隨之而來陷入泥淖的戰局，迫使當時的台灣住民接受不平等待遇之際，面對另一項急迫的任務，亦即成為為「皇國」奉獻心力的「日本人」。縱使戰爭的傷痛已逐漸消逝在歷史的洪流之中，身為後人，面對歷史，追求正義，前提在於建立完整而客觀的史觀。為了從不同的角度理解「台灣人」被形塑為「日本人」的文學形象，本論文以太平洋戰爭末期殊為流行的國策文學為中心進行考察。 國策文學的範疇，特指符合官方政策理念，或直接由政府下令撰寫的作品。作品的選定，首先劃分為「本島人」、「在台日本人」和「日本人」等分類標準。其中，並以《決戰台灣小說集》、丸井妙子的《戰事的背後》、丹羽文雄的《台灣的氣息》及佐多稻子的《台灣之旅》作為本次研究的分析重心。透過小說及隨筆兼具的文學類型、兩種民族，匯聚三種不同視角的作家觀點，觀察作家在藝術與政策間如何取得平衡，以及戰爭時期作家如何呈現眼中接受皇民化的台灣人樣貌。 藉由上述分析，推知兩點。第一、血緣本身即具有強烈的國家認同意涵，但地理空間的移動或生活環境的薰陶，也影響作者本身在刻劃角色時的態度。本論文所選之作品中，作者現身文本的比例較高，其意志也直接影響文本內容。因此，作者介入作品的象徵，可視為內文中的「實像」；而其所創造之「台灣人」的角色，則可視為「虛像」。第二、在構築台灣人要如何成為「理想的」日本人形象時，筆者試圖將其分為精神世界及肉體鍛鍊等兩種方法。作者所選擇的切入點，也會反映其對於「台灣人」的「日本人化」此一問題的理解。
In 1985, Taiwan became part of the Empire of Great Japan as its first colony. For the people in the mother country and colony, they’d shared a common history for fifty years. However, during the final period of Japanese rule in 1937, Taiwan began with the eruption of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Until the end of the Pacific War, the Taiwanese people were treated unjustly as the Colonial Government aimed at Japanizing Taiwanese society. They’ve tried to build the “Japanese spirit”, the Japanese identity, and encouraged participation in the war effort. Even though the pain of war had been recorded in history, as one of colonial’s posterity, the pursuit of justice was our mission; and the premise was to build a complete and objective conception of history. In order to understand how the Taiwanese people were molded into Japanese likeness, this thesis focuses on the “Government Controlled Literature” which was popular during the later phase of the Pacific War. Whether the works conformed to the nation’s policy or were written from the order of official authorities, they were a part of the Government Controlled Literature. The standards which I’d chose for the works of Government Controlled Literature divides the authors into three categories. These are “Japanese”, “The Japanese who lived in Taiwan”, and “Taiwanese”. These works became known as: The decisive battle in Taiwan: collection of short stories, Behind the war by Marui Taeko, The breath of Taiwan by Niwa Fumio, and The journey in Taiwan by Sata Ineko. By reading and researching through novels, essays, and three additional perspectives of various authors, we could observe how these authors maintained the balance between arts and policies. Furthermore, we could explore how they’ve depicted the Taiwanese confrontation during the “Kominka movement”. According to the analysis, at first, blood relation was strongly connected to national identity. But the movements in geographical space and different living environment became the overriding influences in these authors’ description of their characters. Therefore, the symbolisms used by these authors in their own works could be thought of as “real image”. Their created characters could be deemed as “virtual image”. Second, when analyzing authors in how to create the ideal Japanized Taiwanese, I’ve collected evidence based on two methods. The first is the analysis of the mind, and the second is physical reformation. After all, the methodologies the authors used in their work selections would reflect their understanding about Taiwanese’s Japanization.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。