The Positioning of Nature in Soseki’s Early “Meian” Period Chinese poetry – Influenced by Wang Wei?
|關鍵字:||夏目漱石、王維、自然、人、則天去私(Natsume Soseki, Wang Wei, Nature, Humanity, Sokutenkyoshi)||公開日期:||十二月-2011||期刊:||臺大日本語文研究||頁數:||93-118||摘要:||夏目漱石自幼崇拜陶淵明、李白、王維等中國文人，小說或隨筆中也常引用到這些詩人的作品，漱石漢詩受中國文人影響可想見一斑。然而，例如大地武雄、加藤二郎、上垣外憲一等漱石漢詩研究學者均偏向陶淵明與漱石之研究，王維與漱石之研究較不受到矚目。提及漱石漢詩中之「自然」，多數人都會同時聯想到晚年的漢詩與漱石之最高思想「則天去私」，不過，此思想並非一次完成的，而是漱石經過多年深思熟慮才領悟出之道理。此思想固然可說反映在漱石晚年的75首漢詩當中，但並非所有晚年漢詩均為此思想之表現，漢詩研究學者中村宏指出大正五年九月五日所作的157號漢詩可視為「一個分界點」，漱石晚年《明暗》時代之漢詩可分成前、後二期。基於以上理由，本搞針對《明暗》時代前期漢詩、也就是134號—156號共23首之漢詩，以詩人對自然之態度、人與自然之關係等為探討之主要問題，並考證這些漢詩中是否受到王維之影響？藉此探討希望能對「則天去私」有一番了解。
Since an early age, Natsume Soseki had looked up to Chinese scholars such as Tao Yuan-ming, Li Bai, Wang Wei, and often cited their works in his novels and essays. These Chinese scholars hold a significant impact on Soseki and his kanshi (Chinese poetry). However, academics such as Daichi Takeo, Katou Jiro, and Kamigaito Kenichi mostly focused on the analysis of Tao Yuan-ming’s influence on Soseki; Wang Wei’s influenced is rarely contemplated. Speaking of “Nature” in Soseki’s kanshi, most people would relate to kanshi written in his later years and his ultimate goal of “Sokutenkyoshi”. However, this ideal was not developed in one day, it took Soseki many years of pondering to formulate. It could be said that this ideal was reflected in the seventy five kanshi written in Soseki’s late years, nevertheless, not all of these poems are manifestations of this ideology. Kanshi researcher Nakamura Hiroshi points out that kanshi number 157 written on September 5th in the fifth year of Taisho era (1917) could be seen as a “dividing point”, separating Soseki’s Meian Period kanshi into two intervals. Based on the above deductions, this paper aims to address the poet’s attitude towards nature and the relationship between humanity and nature, focusing on Soseki’s early Meian period kanshi, explicitly the twenty three kanshi from number 134 to 156. Moreover, this paper would also discuss whether these kanshi were influenced by Wang Wei, in hopes of gaining further insight into Soseki’s “Sokutenkyoshi” philosophy.
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