The Study on the Semantic Functions of Japanese Banefactive ?The case of “tekureru”?
|關鍵字:||補助授受表現;語意機能;恩惠;動作之方向性;對等?相對立場;Auxiliary giving and receiving expressions;Semantic Functions;benefit;movement direction;equal& relative position||公開日期:||十二月-2009||期刊:||臺大日本語文研究||頁數:||085-114||摘要:||有關日語補助授受表現形式「tekureru」構文之研究為數頗多，但自松下（1930）指出其特徵為「他行自利態」（其後之研究改稱為「恩惠」、「受益」等）以來，主要的論述庶幾皆沿循恩惠施予之角度。本研究之目的即在探討日語補助授受表現形式「tekureru」構文所謂「恩惠」特徵之適當性，並論述其語意機能。透過語例分析，本研究證實所謂恩惠、受益云云主要起因於場面，[Tekureru]本身並無產生恩惠之施予云云的功能；更進一步分析其語意機能如下：1、在[Tekureru]構文裏，以行為者所進行或所關連之事態而言，被行為者?無論其為顯性或隱性存在?與行為者同為場面構成上不可或缺且為對等之存在；2、在[Tekureru]構文裏，行為者與被行為者為如[內]與[外]之相對立場。與敘述事態之認知主體為同一方者視為[內]，非屬同一方者視為[外]；3、[Tekureru]用來表示行為者所進行動作指向被行為者，亦即表示由[外]到[內]的方向性，透過此一機能，行為者與被行為者皆與事態產生關連性。上述[Tekureru]之語意機能再透過[Tekureru]構文裏[Tekureru]成分之抽取與否、和非[Tekureru]構文裏[Tekureru]成分能否插入等方式之檢驗，亦證實本研究結果之有效性。
Matsushita(1930) studied Japanese “tekureru” sentences and characterized it as “beneficial modal”. Since then much studies pertaining to “tekureru” conformed to Matsushita’s definition. In this paper, the author investigated the appropriateness of the characterization of “tekureru” sentences, and discussed its semantic functions. The finding indicated that the so-called “benefit” depends on something that a favor-giver has given; there is no function to initiate “benefit” in the component of “tekureru” itself. The following shows semantic functions of “tekureru”. 1. with regard to “tekureru” sentences, no matter it is explicit or implicit; a favor-taker has the same importance as a favor-giver in the situation in which a favor-giver is involved. 2. In the situation that is constructed based on “tekureru”, the favor-giver and favor-taker are on the opposite position as “outside” and “inside”. One who recognizes the situation like the favor-giver belongs to “inside”, while the other falls in “outside”. 3.”tekureru” implies that the action of a favor-giver is taken toward to a favor-taker. In other words, it is in a direction moving from outside to inside. And both the favor-giver and taker are getting associated with each other during the direction shift. As for the results, through the comparison the sentences that consist of “tekureru” and that doesn’t, as well as the analysis of the appropriateness of deleting “tekureru” from “tekureru”sentences, and addition of “tekureru” to a sentence that does not consist of “tekureru”, the effectiveness of this study is certified.
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