Buddhist Master Ingen and the Spread of Oubaku Culture to the Japan
|關鍵字:||隱元;黃檗文化;漢學;典籍;木庵;即非;鄭成功;Ingen;OubaKu Culture;Han school;ancient Chinese books;Mokuan;Sokuhi;Zheng Cheng-gong||公開日期:||六月-2004||期刊:||臺大日本語文研究||頁數:||155-182||摘要:||日本學術與思想之獨立始於江戶川時代,對中華文化的攝取亦完成於江戶時代。十七世紀初期德川幕府實施[鎖國]之後,中日交流的接觸點雖只限定於九州的長崎港,但當時朱子學為幕藩體制下的官學,因此雙方以貿易活動與文人交流為媒介,促使日本社會對儒學的普及逐步蔚為風潮,尤其當時日本的知識份子對中國文化之攝取不但有增無減,兩百多年的德川幕府對漢學的獎勵,更是不遺餘力。德川時代的儒者,漢學家爭相到長崎遊學,視能飽食中國的學問為畢生的榮耀。他們傾心於儒學之外,更愛好中國的典籍.詩.書.畫,這種現象可以說是空前未有的[漢學興盛期]。江戶時代的學術之所以能夠普及發達,與其國內社會長期的和平.為政者的鼓勵.學風的自由及印刷術的發達息息相關。幕府或各藩諸侯為了振興教育頻頻錄用飽學之士,並重視漢學文獻的蒐集與刊行,幕府將軍本身熱衷學術者為數不少。
Japan’s academic and ideological independence from foreign influence began in the time of Edo. Her assimilation of the Chinese culture also ended in the time of Edo. Following the Sakoku (national isolation) policy adopted by the Tokugawa Bakuhu in the early 17th century, Nagasaki harbor in Kyushu became the only contact point for Sino-Japan cultural exchange. But given that the teachings of Confucian scholar Zhu Xi (Zhu Zi) was the orthodox school at that time under the Bakuhan system, Confucianism was prevalent in the Japanese society. Intellectuals in particular were keen on learning the Chinese culture. The Tokugawa Bakuhu that lasted more than two hundred years also made substantial efforts in encouraging the Han school of learning. Confucian and Han scholars in Japan at the time vied for the opportunity to study in Nagasaki and took mastery in Chinese scholarship as their lifetime achievement. Besides submitting themselves to Confucian teachings with reverence, they wholeheartedly embraced ancient Chinese books, poetry, and painting. It was the unprecedented flourishing period for Han school. The prevalence and flourishing of scholarly endeavor and atmosphere during the Edo era were attributed largely to the long-term internal peace, government encouragement, academic freedom, and the advancement of printing. In their efforts to promote education, the bakuhus or governors recruited learned scholars and encouraged the collection and printing of literature. Quite a few bakuhu generals themselves were keen on academic pursuit. The one person that exerted far-reaching influence on Japanese culture in religion as well as arts and crafts was Buddhist Master Ingen Ryouki of the Oubaku sect who traveled across the sea to Japan in 1654 to preach the Buddhist teaching. Given that Han poetry and literature were dominant during the Edo era when Confucianism was at its peak, Ingen’s graceful poetry and verses and his mastery in calligraphy earned him a name as the rightful descendant of the Oubaku culture in Japan’s cultural community. Ingen and his two disciples Mokuan (1611-1684) and Sokuhi (1616-1671) were lauded as the “three masters of Oubaku.” For Japan’s Buddhist community in the time of Sakoku, the Buddhist teaching, disciplinary thinking and rules of the Oubaku sect provided guidance to Japanese Buddhist monks and made considerable contribution to the development of the Japanese culture. This paper purports to examine the correspondences of Ingen and reinterpret the difference between his scholarly thinking and his influence on the modern-time culture of Japan. The paper also explores his interactions with a number of late-Ming surviving officials and theclan of Zheng Cheng-gong(1624-1662) , his role in fighting the Q’ing dynasty as Ming survivors and his viewpoint on national identity.
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