The Cross Influence between Japanese Poetry(Ho-K') and Han Poetry－Take the Thirty-third Pair Poetry of the New Composed Wan-Yeh Collection As Example
|關鍵字:||《新撰萬葉集》;鄉;郭公;浮墜;閨情;New Composed Wan-Yeh Collection;Hsiang : village;Kuo-kung : cuckoo;Fu-tang: to float and delay;Kuei-ch’ing: feminine love||公開日期:||六月-2003||期刊:||臺大日本語文研究||頁數:||095-110||摘要:||和歌漢詩兼收的詩歌總集《新撰萬葉集》出現於平安初期，在萬葉集之後，而稍早於正式的官修歌集《古今和歌集》。和歌內容以萬葉假名標記，依春、夏、秋、冬、戀分卷，而各卷以一首和歌一首漢詩交叉配置成一組。本論文是以其中第三十三組詩歌為例，希望透過表記的檢討以及對和歌與漢詩的分析比較，一窺平安初期和歌與漢詩之交流情形。
飛去飛來無定處 或南或北幾門庭 和《萬葉集》等先前的文獻比較，從標記和歌的遣詞用字仔細解讀，可以發現「??」用「鄉」字而非一般常用的「里」字、還有以詩歌中罕見的「浮宕」二字表「浮???」等現象似乎說明了作者或編者與當時的律令制度有密切的關聯。對該時期的文學研究中不乏文學典籍如何影響日本歷史書籍的討論，但相反地史書對文學的影響就極少被提及，因此本組詩歌說明了當時的史書也是和歌用語的來源之一，也印證了平安朝的宮廷詩人與律令官員間有密切往來，甚至有相當的重疊性。
The poetry anthology, New Composed Wan-Yeh Collection which contained both Ho-K’o and Han-Shih, appeared in the early days of P’ing-An (893 AD). It was after Wan-Yeh Collection, and a little earlier than the official-edited Ho-K’o collection that was Ancient and contemporary Ho-K’o Collection (905 AD). The anthology was marked as Wan-Yeh, and classified in volumes according to spring, summer, autumn, winter and love, Therefore each volume was arranged to have a Ho-K’o and a Han-Shih to form a pair. This dissertation tries to use the thirty-third pair of poems as an example to collate the exchanges in the early days of P’ing-An, by the criticism of the charts, and the analysis of and the comparison between Ho-K’o and Han-Shih. The discussed poems are as following: Ho-K’o 65: Uram tutu Todomaru Sato mo nakareba ya Hototogisu Ukaretewa Naku Shih 66: The cry of Kuo-Kung interfered the feminine love, The sorrowful woman heard the disgustful sound, Fly everywhere but nowhere to reside, In the south or north are how many courtyards. In comparison with the earlier documents such as Wan-Yeh collection by carefully studying the symbols and the usage of words, it is quite clear to use “Hsiang” rather than the word “Li”, and the seldom used “float and delay” to mean “…” The phenomenon seems to explain that the author or the editor was closely related to the legal system. The studies of how the literature classics influenced the Japanese historical books in this period were never absent. But on the contrary, it was rarely mentioned that how the historical books influenced literature. Therefore the pair of poems also demonstrates that historical books were one of the sources of the terms employed in Ho-K’o. Furthermore it also improved that inn P’ing-An Dynasty the royal poets and the legal officers had close contacts, and even were overlapped. It is also meaningful to compare with the same pair of Ho-K’o and Han-Shih. This pair of poems looks carefully and neatly done from the very beginning to the end,. In fact, the purport of Ho-K’o pays more attention on mocking the cuckoo, but the theme of Han-Shih concentrates on the feminine sorrowful love. That the purposes of the poems are diverse reflects the basic difference of Japanese and Han poetry. Though only one example is discussed, can’t it clearly present the exchanges of Japanese and Han poetry before the emergence of Ancient and Contemporary Ho-K’o Collection?
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