Cultural Change and Regional Relationship of Prehistoric Taiwan: A Case Study of Oluanpi II Site
|關鍵字:||考古學;文化變遷;區域互動;鵝鑾鼻第二遺址;鳳鼻頭文化;彩陶;覆紅陶;Archaeology;cultural change;regional interaction;OLPII;Fengpitou Culture;painted pottery;red-slipped pottery||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||本研究的主題，為鵝鑾鼻第二史前遺址(OLPII)的文化史及與鄰近區域史前文化之間的關係。本文推論恒春半島的史前文化諸相，具有西海岸與東海岸文化的幅輳轉接性質，並透過文化傳遞的體系及過程，使許多文化要素在同時限異地域或異時限異地域中出現。透過遺址發掘及遺物分析等第一手材料的收集、整理與研究，本研究分別對於恒春半島的先陶文化、大坌坑文化、細繩紋陶文化及鳳鼻頭文化等各新石器時代中晚期以前的文化現象與區域關係，進行討論。其中重要論點包括了以下數點。由恒春半島大坌坑文化聚落分布的現象及先陶文化已知年代，此區域可能並無大坌坑文化的存在，而鵝鑾鼻第二遺址的層位可能僅有先陶文化層及鳳鼻頭文化層。然而恒春半島的細繩紋陶文化雖未進入鵝鑾鼻第二遺址，但顯然在恒春半島有相當廣泛而深刻的影響，東海岸的細繩紋陶文化亦應為恒春半島的細繩紋陶文化擴展而來。鵝鑾鼻地點出土的東海岸獨有的遺物顯示，東海岸的史前文化與鵝鑾鼻地區有頻繁的往來。細繩紋陶文化在台灣南部的分布十分廣泛，其間交通網絡可能是以水路交通建立而起，而共享了許多文化要素。然而自箱式石棺及玉器的分布，西海岸與東海岸的細繩紋陶文化可能屬於不同的互動圈範疇。史前文化層位、遺物特徵及生態適應模式，可證明鳳鼻頭遺址與鵝鑾鼻地區，在史前時代有著密不可分的密切關係。新石器時代中晚期，來自台灣西南海岸鳯鼻頭遺址上層的鳳鼻頭文化，將其文化觸角伸入鵝鑾鼻第二遺址，在此留下大量的堆積。由彩陶的紋飾比較可觀察，兩地有相同的文化表徵，但是具有不同的意識形態和社會內聚力，可能各為一個互有往來的平行文化實體。鳳鼻頭文化向南發展到鵝鑾鼻半島的因素之一，可能是尋找南向擴展的路線；本研究在鵝鑾鼻第二遺址上層發掘所得及辨認出來的覆紅陶，與呂宋島北部所出土的覆紅陶相同，而年代上呂宋島覆紅陶略晚於鵝鑾鼻的鳳鼻頭文化。加上同時期呂宋島史前文化出土了鳳鼻頭文化的灰黑陶及紡輪，因此，鳳鼻頭文化有可能在鵝鑾鼻半島發展之後，部分擴展到了呂宋島。這種文化擴展幅度的增加，也是「對等政體」互動形式的特徵之一。台灣的史前文化，由於區域互動相當頻繁，不少同時限異地域、或同地域異時限的史前文化間，有顯著文化要素共享的現象。因此史前文化層序的辨認和訂立，可能應更重視區域之間的共同性，以利討論整體史前文化的發展現象。
This research is to investigate the relations between the prehistorical site O-Luan-Pi II (OLPII), which located in the south tip of Taiwan, and the other prehistoric cultures in the southern Taiwan. I adopted the method of cultural history to support my analysis of the holistic cultural remains in OLPII to complement the information about cultural changes and regional interactions in the south of Taiwan. According to the data I collected, I try to build up the hypothesis that there were active interaction among prehistoric areas, and some cultural elements were shared by this interaction. In the mean time, the cultural ideology and was transferred, such as meaning of death or social political regime. The data collected from the excavation of OLPII site in 2006 and 2007 reveals various information. The bottom stratum that known as late Paleolithic persisted culture provides new material for carbon dating in 5750 yr B.P. This result suggests again that this persisted culture might located between 4800~6000 B.P., and possibly the transition period started from the late Paleolithic with the adaptation about seashore resources. The lower second layer, Tapenkeng(TPK), is absent in the whole peninsula area, I assume that the TPK expended to the east coast areas directly from the south-west area, and skipped the Hengchun peninsula where the pre-pottery culture still locates.he Find Red Ware(FRW) culture of Fengpitou site(FPT)(Chang 1969), is possibly close related to OLPII site. Through comprising the cultural factors, and following the migration theory suggested by Professor Huang Shih-chiang, I proposed that the FRW might had a massive migration from FPT to OLPII. The migration brought new cultural factors into the Hengchun peninsula. After these cultural factors were absorbed and transformed, they shaped the specialty of Kengting Cultural Phase, which was known as a divided stream of FRW. Later on, the FRW migrated from OLPII again to the east coast area of Taiwan. From the remains of these areas, I found the cultural factors were transferred in mutual way, and formed an interacting framework. I propose the conecpts of “Taiwan southwestern interaction sphere”, and “Taiwan southeastern interaction sphere”, to discuss the mutual intense interaction. Since the FRW is found broadly in west coast area of Taiwan and Penghu islands, and the similar cultural factors are found in east coast Taiwan, I proposed that OLP area is located in the overlapping margin of the two spheres by the founding of same artifacts as the west coast cultures, and the mixed burial cults and jade industry with the east coast cultures. he late middle Neolithic stage of South Taiwan is proposed to be the Sandy Plain Pottery (SPP) culture, which was modified from K.C. Chang’s Sandy Red-Grey Horizon theory. Through the comparison, the similarity between FPT upper layer and OLPII upper layer was observed, and the interaction from the south east to the south of Taiwan could had still intensely worked in the era. The FPT and the OLPII sites could be seen as two peer polities by the evidence that the most vast deposit over this region in the same period . A noticeable characteristic of this period is the long distance expanding or migration. The red-slipped pottery of OLPII, could be also found in the east coast of Taiwan, and the northern Luzon and Batanes of Philippines. The carbon dating years of red-slipped of Batanes in the Sunget period, are comparatively later than OLPII’s dating results. I assume that the latest period of OLPII residents, might had another massive expansion from Hengchun peninsula to the east coast of Taiwan and the northern Philipines. The expanding movement might had formed the earliest Peinan Culture, and it possibly motivated the migration of proto Austronesians.owever, this hypothesis still need more correlated research to support, especially the research about ancient ecological and environmental analysis. There are still limitaions of this research, because the archaeological data before Middle Neolithic is very rarely found in Oluanpi. But this research could possibly help researchers to deduct how did environment affect people’s migration and cultural changes.
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