Jar-Burial of Neolithic Taiwan: A Case Study at ShiChiao in Tainan City
|關鍵字:||大湖文化;烏山頭期;墓葬;葬具;社會角色;Tahu Culture;Wushantou phase;burial, jar;social character||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||石橋遺址下文化層出土72具甕棺葬，屬於大湖文化烏山頭期（烏山頭類型），本論文針對其組成成分：葬具、人骨及陪葬品進行各項資料之整理。經統計分析與比較後，葬具陶罐與覆蓋物之間的形制組合並不具有明顯傾向，主要決定其組合的因素為口徑大小。然而甕棺葬葬具仍有著主流類型之存在：直壁敞口陶罐與外翻口帶緣盆的組合，此模式應與日常生活陶器的比例相關，也可說甕棺葬採用陶容器取自日常生活陶容器，意即甕棺葬所採用葬具陶器應非專門製造，而是遇到嬰幼兒亡佚時將日常使用者挪作墓葬葬具使用。陪葬品則並非每具甕棺葬皆有，僅占總數1/4，為生者供奉死者飲食的容器，且有著出土位置的差異，主要為墓口與甕棺罐體旁兩種模式，器形上的變化則較少。人骨遺留保存狀況較差因此僅有部分個體可辨識年齡，主要由牙齒型態判定，可辨識的個體中大部分為1.5歲以下嬰幼兒，而其利用甕棺埋葬而非成人所使用土坑葬的原因應來自兩者社會角色的差異，此差異也反映在甕棺葬的年齡階層中，葬具尺寸、墓穴深度及陪葬品有無等資料呈現這些差異性的產生應來自年齡的差異。
72 jar burials, which belong to the Wushantou phase of the Tahu culture, were excavated from lower cultural layer of the ShiChiao site. In this thesis are the arrangement of the components, which are coffins, human bones and grave goods. Through statistical analysis and comparison, there is no obvious tendency for combination of form between the jars and the covers. The key factors is the size of the mouth of the potterys. There are, however, still main forms: jars with straight-wide mouth and roll-opened basin. This is related to the percentage of daily using potteries, in other words, the coffins for infant burials are acquired from everyday used potteries. That means the pottery of jar burials are not originally made for the funeral. In case an infant is dead, function of a daily used jar and basin would be changed. Offering goods are not found in all jar burials, only in 25% ones, and are containers of food and drink from people alive. There are two kinds of position for containers: top and bottom of the grave, but the form is cosistency. Human bones are dilapidated so that only few ones can be figure out the age. Most age data are determined from dental mophological methods, the age range is behind one and half years. Discrepancy of social characters desplay in the coffin of the burial between infants and adults. The same discrepancy can also be observed in different age of jar burials, which have different size of coffins, depth of graves, and with or without offering goods.
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