The Practice and Implication of Contemporary Christian Utopian Communities: The Case of Mount Zion of New Testament Church in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||基督教;烏托邦社區;新約教會;錫安山;聖別地;伊甸家園;Christianity;utopian community;New Testament Church;Mount Zion;Holy land;Eden Homestead||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||本論文以新約教會在台灣建立的自主社區「錫安山」為主要研究對象，試圖考察並呈現其當代面貌的發展過程和社會生活實踐以與現有的「烏托邦」研究進行連接與對話。本論文認為，如果把「烏托邦」廣義理解為要在人間實現美好社會生活的一種理想主義，則這種烏托邦「思想」可能存在於許多文化之中。綜觀古今中外，在少數將烏托邦思想轉化為「試驗」或「實踐」而成功建立起居住區的案例裡，似乎以基督教烏托邦團體居多。而在華人世界中，以宗教意識型態建立這種「烏托邦社區」的案例微乎其微，目前保有烏托邦形式最完整並持續實踐的最好案例，恐怕就是台灣新約教會的錫安山。 本論文認為由台灣新約教會（基督靈恩佈道團）所持有並開發的「聖別地」是一個以基督教「信仰」作為文化底蘊和思想藍圖所支持實踐的烏托邦社區。新約教會在全台各地、乃至於海外地區擁有許多大小不一的聖別地，其中最具代表性、最崇高而神聖的即是位於台灣高雄市那瑪夏區舊稱雙連堀的「錫安山」，而其他仿效錫安山典範的聖別地被新約教徒稱為「錫安支嶺」。在刻意與外界隔絕的聖別地內，新約教徒有意識地再現了《聖經》中「伊甸園」和基督教初期教會的「公社」生活方式，過著融合「工作、生活、事奉」為一體而「以神為本」的日子；而在1997年「退出人國」取得自行教育信徒子女的權力之後，這些更趨完備的信仰實踐之生活場域也被稱為「伊甸家園」。 在內容上，首先本論文從歷時性的角度檢視新約教會╱錫安山自1960年代以來至今的發展及變遷，指出促成烏托邦的「內在與外在動力」是如何被「人」（新約教徒）所有效結合、進而動態實踐具體的烏托邦社區，同時藉由此個案檢驗和修正有關基督教與烏托邦間的親緣理論。其次，本論文從共時性的角度──神本生活與教育、環境保育與生態村、生產與消費、出世觀與烏托邦建構等面向──呈現錫安山上「錫安子民」的社會生活，並記錄和考察新約教徒的在家教育（神本教育）、日常聚會（信息和見證）以及節期朝聖（2014年住棚大會）之實踐，由此勾勒出錫安山作為基督教烏托邦社區在當代台灣的面貌及特色。 然後，結合歷時性和共時性的研究結果，本論文指出新約教會透過獨特的教義╱動員體系靈活詮釋烏托邦社區內外各種「以神之名」的具體行動，主動性地創造意義並賦予價值使之成為「信仰實踐」，一方面對內不斷產生「凝聚」團體成員的效果，一方面對外以「抵抗」的運動方式持續建構出並維持住烏托邦的邊界，進而使錫安山這個基督教烏托邦社區，得以在台灣的特定社會文化與歷史脈絡下不斷合理「轉型」和「適應」來自內部社區和外部社會的挑戰，因而成功經營並延續至今（2016年）達30年而未歇。 本論文最後以錫安山的經驗和模式為例檢視烏托邦社區成功興起和實踐所具備的各種特質和條件。並指出新約教會╱錫安山的現象，不僅是一種宗教烏托邦運動，還可能是一種「特殊表現方式」的社會運動。最後試圖比較基督教烏托邦與世俗烏托邦的異同，以與人類學中關於烏托邦的理論假說進行對話。
This research focuses on the study of the autonomous community “Mount Zion” (Mt. Zion), established by the New Testament Church (NTC) in Taiwan. The aim of the research is to examine the contemporary features, present its development and practice of social life, and connect with some previous studies on Utopia. In my study, it is believed that the “thought” of Utopia may exit in various cultures, if Utopia is to be generalized as an idealism of living in a wonderful society in the mortal world. Throughout the world history, it seems that most of the few communities successfully turning the thoughts of Utopia into experiment or practice have been founded by the Christian Utopian ones. On the other hand, in Chinese societies, the case of the “Utopian community” founded by the ideology of religion is scarce. Currently, the best example of this kind of community would be Mt. Zion founded by NTC in Taiwan, which preserves the Utopian way of living in the most complete and sustained fashion. In my study, I consider that the “Holy-Land” (promised land) owned and developed by NTC in Taiwan is a community that sustains and practices the idea of Utopia by implementing Christian religion as its culture base and blueprint of concept. NTC has many Holy-Lands in different places throughout Taiwan, even overseas. Among all, the most representative and most divine one is Mt. Zion located in Kaohsiung City. As for the other Holy-Lands following the example of Mt. Zion are called “branches of Mt. Zion”. Inside the Holy-Land, which deliberately isolates itself from the outside world, the NTC believers consciously recreates the living style similar to “Eden” and “Commune” in the beginning of the Christian Church recorded in the Bible. They live in the God-based life style, and combine “work, live, serve” as a whole. Moreover, they gained the power of self-educating the disciples’ children from Taiwan government in 1997, hence the religion-practicing living area become more mature, and is therefore called “Eden Homestead”. The content of my thesis firstly through the diachronic view point presents the development of NTC/Mt. Zion from 1960s to the present time, indicating how the “internal and external motivation” of the Utopia was efficiently combined by “people”, and how they further actively realized the concrete Utopia community. At the same time, the close-relationship between Christianity and Utopia was examined and revised through the study of the case of Mt. Zion. Secondly, the current study presents the social life of NTC believers in Mt. Zion through the synchronic view point, including the aspects of God-based life and God-based education, environment preservation and eco-village, production and consumption, the idea of Utopia-construction. It also recorded the NTC’ homeschooling (God-based education), daily congregation (prophecy and witness), and pilgrimage (Feast of Tabernacles in 2014). These aspects above hence depicted the profile of Mt. Zion as a Christian Utopia in contemporary Taiwan. Furthermore, the diachronic and synchronic results show that NTC has vividly interpreted various “in-the-name-of-God” actions, inside and outside the community through its unique religious doctrines and mobilization system, and has actively created meanings and given value to it, making it a “practice of faith”. On one hand, it has internally created cohesion within the members in the group. On the other hand, it has externally produced a motion of resistance to form and sustain the boarder of the Utopia. Therefore, Mt. Zion, the Christian Utopian community, is able to continuously “transform” and “adapt” the challenges arising from inside and outside the community under the specific social, cultural and historical context in Taiwan, and further more continues functioning till present time for over thirty years. Finally, this research takes the example of Mt. Zion experience to examine the qualities and conditions for a successfully established and functioning Utopian community. Moreover, the research indicates that the phenomenon of NTC/Mt. Zion is not only a religious utopian movement, but also a “special way of expression” of social movement. Last, the comparison between of Christian Utopia and secular Utopia is made, in order to enter into a dialogue with the Utopia theories in the field of anthropology.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。