The Practice of “Natural Healing” of Sekai Kyusei Kyo: A Case Study of MOA Natural Farming in Japan and Taiwan
|Keywords:||日本;台灣;MOA自然農法;世界救世教;自然療癒;替代農法網絡;朝聖;Japan;Taiwan;MOA natural farming;Sekai Kyusei Kyo;natural healing;alternative agriculture network;pilgrimage||Issue Date:||2016||Abstract:||
本研究以日本世界救世教東方之光所衍生的「MOA跨國社群」為主要研究對象，試圖從該社群的組織觀點出發，藉由多點民族誌的田野調查方式，釐清MOA自然農法在日本與台灣兩地的替代農法網絡，以探究MOA社群如何利用教義裡的彈性思想結構來產製自然療癒象徵階序，又如何藉此整合理念與實踐的衝突，來打造以日本為中心的跨國農法網絡和組織再生產模式。 為了組織擴張目的，MOA延續教祖岡田茂吉結合宗教與科學的自然療癒觀二元象徵結構，一方面發展出科學化的自然農法知識及教學體系，另一方面發展出一套能於內在道德與外在行動象徵階序間自由轉換的雙重象徵階序。而MOA社群雖然強調透過跨國擴張及各種赴日朝聖活動，來證成日本中心與岡田理念的崇高；但從台灣MOA自然農法的網絡可知，MOA跨國社群仍以日本宗教社群為核心社群，並以結合宗教與科學的新醫學「淨化療法」為核心實踐。因此，即使台灣的農法網絡缺乏對於岡田自然療癒觀的認識以及在地農民專家社群，但MOA社群仍透過日常生活中三大健康法的自我修練及赴日朝聖，來維持台灣自然農法網絡的日常運作與完整性。 本研究結果顯示，MOA自然農法跨國網絡裡日常健康法的自我修練與各種赴日朝聖活動過程中，不但呈現MOA自然療癒階序的性質為一種目的式偶然對立象徵結構，也展現了MOA社群透過反覆展演來強化日本中心的日本文明主義。藉此，我們得以更了解日本新興宗教所發展出的替代農法網絡，也更清楚網絡中自然療癒觀的特色與其所呈現的當代日本新興宗教面貌。
This study focuses on the “MOA international community” derived from the Oriental Light, one branch of the Japanese new religion Sekai Kyusei Kyo (World Salvation Teachings). From an organizational point of view, I analyze the alternative agriculture network of MOA natural farming both in Japan and Taiwan by way of multi-point Fieldwork Ethnography. In addition, I explore how to use the doctrine of the MOA community, namely, “elastic structure of thought”, to produce a natural healing hierarchy system, and how to mitigate the conflict in concept and practice in order to build a Japan-centric multi-national farming network and the mode of organizational reproduction. For the purpose of organizational expansion, MOA followed Okada Mokichi’s concept of natural healing, which is a dual symbolic structure that combines religion and science. On the one hand, MOA developed a scientific system of knowledge and teaching of natural farming. On the other hand, they also developed a set of dual symbols of hierarchy, which is able to freely converse the symbol of hierarchy between inner morality and external action. While MOA emphasizes the cross-border expansion and various pilgrimage activities to Japan to justify the supremacy of Okada’s idea and Japanese centricity, in the case of networks in MOA natural farming in Taiwan, we find that the Japanese religious communities and the “Okada Purifying Therapy” is still the core of MOA international community. Therefore, even though the farming network in Taiwan lacks Okada’s concept of natural healing and local community of farmer experts, they still maintain the MOA international community’s daily operation and integrity of the network of natural farming in Taiwan through self-cultivation of Okada’s three therapies in everyday life and the pilgrimage to Japan. The results of this study show that the daily self-cultivation of Okada’s three therapies and the pilgrimage to Japan in the MOA international natural farming network not only reveals that the MOA natural healing order is a symbolic structure of accidental opposition for the propose, but also demonstrates MOA’s Japanese Enlightenment, which is strengthened by repeated performances that take Japan as the center of civilization. In this way, we are able to better understand the alternative agriculture network developed by Japanese new religions and the features of the concepts of natural healing in this network, as well as explore in depth contemporary Japanese new religion.
|Appears in Collections:||人類學系|
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