The Imagination and Practice of Social Networks: The Southeastern Yunnan Hmong as Both Cross-border Ethnic Group and Catholics
|關鍵字:||社會網絡;跨境民族;地緣政治;轉宗;Hmong(social networks;cross-border ethnic group;geopolitics;conversion;Hmong)||公開日期:||六月-2015||期刊:||國立臺灣大學考古人類學刊||頁數:||61-90||摘要:||長期以來，學術界一直十分關心做為東亞大陸上長時間且遠距離遷徙的Hmong 人其建立社會網絡關係的基礎為何，然而卻少有人關注對轉宗後的Hmong 人而言，舊時以家神／家規（dlangb khuat）為核心的結群形式發生了怎樣的改變。對桃村的Hmong 人天主教友來說，社會網絡關係在實踐與想像上的新發展，隨著不同的歷史條件，在各個時期則有著不同形式的集體表現，而苗文班的開辦更為其帶來了一種跨境連結的可能性。然而，教會本身不論在內部或外部發展上的限制，使得當桃村開始較深地捲入市場經濟後，其以往帶動桃村發展的集體性反而開始衰退，而教會發展的困境則又與基督宗教在跨境民族中發展的敏感性不無關連。
For a long time, references to the Hmong have highlighted the ways in which a people who have moved so far and frequently are able to regroup in a new place. There are few scholars focusing on what happened to the Hmong when they adopted Catholicism, and in turn, how they adapted to the new regulations of Catholicism while their traditional style of belief was changed or forbidden by this new foreign religion. For the Hmong living in Tao Village, the imagination and practice of their social networks have different collective representations due to different historical conditions. A class teaching the Miao writing system class also created a chance for cross-border connections and allowed for new relationships to be imagined among the Hmong people. However, this new possibility was limited and stopped by contradictions in and out of the church, and the collectiveness which inspired the development of Tao village withered away in the process. The dilemma of the church came about for a number of reasons. Firstly, in the past, the spreading of Christian religion among the Hmong in this area caused some riots which made the neighboring governments keep an eye on these people. Secondly, because the influence of Vang Pao is still a sensitive issue in this area, the mainly Hmong church has to deal with this political condition carefully. Thirdly, the development of the market economy pushed the people to manage for their own social relationships. In other words, the gap between imagination and practice of social networks for the Hmong living in Tao village has not only been manipulated in their subjective consciousness but also influenced by the international geopolitics.
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