From the Bodily Feelings on the "Wei" of the Ancient Chinese Gentleman
|關鍵字:||身體、身體感、威、威儀、禮(body, bodily feelings, wei, outward demeanor, ritual )||公開日期:||六月-2011||期刊:||國立臺灣大學考古人類學刊||頁數:||89-118||摘要:||「威」在中國古代社會扮演著重要的角色。君子之威可令臣民順則，建立倫理，鞏固家國，故《詩經》謂「敬慎威儀，維民之則」，《論語》亦謂「君子不重則不威」。本文則憑藉身體感的概念，嘗試分三個層次釐清君子之「威」的相關內涵：第一，「威」乃由斧鉞刑罰威嚇之威轉化成「威而不猛」的君子之威，其本質屬身體感受，而能在日常生活中發揮「畏而愛之」的政治影響；第二，這種身體感乃以衣冠服飾配合身體高難度的精準動作塑成，所謂「威儀三千」，其要求正是禮制與儀容上的繁複規定；第三，在「禮者，體也」的論述下闡明周人藉初民的身體經驗提煉成禮制之體，「威」感正是禮制之體相互感通的結果，具有人倫鑒識的功能。因此，透過「威」感的分析，我們看到古代文化中符號與身體互動的具體成果。
Wei（威）in ancient Chinese society plays an important role. The wei of gentleman can make subjects obey, establish ethical standards, and steady the country. Therefore, the Book of Songs said "With reverent (wei) care of his outward demeanor, One will become the pattern of the people" the Analects also said " A gentleman not being steadfast is not able to command respect (wei)." This essay tries to clarify three aspects of the wei of gentleman using the concept of bodily feelings. Firstly, wei owes to the sway and potential for inflicting punishment which is converted into the prestige of gentleman which he should be “imposing without being fierce." Its nature is a physical reception, and in everyday life, it could have the political ramification of causing others to "stand in awe and yet feel love". Secondly, bodily feelings were molded out of dress costumes and difficult, precise bodily movements, the so-called "three thousand rules of demeanor" which contained complex rules of rituals and appearance. Thirdly, the idea that "rules of propriety can be compared to the human body" states that in the Zhou Dynasty the bodily experience of earlier people was transformed into a ritualized corporality. The bodily feeling of wei is the result of perception of and by this ritualized corporality, and has the function of identifying qualified people. Therefore, through analysis of bodily feelings of wei, we can see the concrete results of the interaction of cultural symbols and the physical body in ancient China.
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