Kandinsky, and Literary Avant-garde in H.D.’s Sea Garden
|關鍵字:||文學前衛運動;意象主意;渦旋派;跨領域研究法;另類美學;literary Avant-garde;Imagism;Vorticism;interdisciplinary reading;alternative beauty||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||H.D.相關研究的兩大典範：「精神分析」和「女性主義」忽視了她早期詩歌中隱含的顛覆力量：一般認為意象詩學限制了H.D.詩中女性主體的發展。本文質疑僅將H.D.放在女性書寫脈絡，或作為精神分析典範的閱讀之不足，並著重在H.D.所處的現代主義歷史框架中。本文揭示重新閱讀H.D.首部詩集《海濱花園》中去性化主體的複雜性，而非將其視為H.D.寫作生涯中未趨成熟的初步之作。《海濱花園》挪用傳統的「花園」意象、有意識地模糊說話主體、以及和她當代的男性作家對話在在指出她拒絕屈就於文學史中的附屬地位，以及她意圖另闢女性主體的美學態度。
我認為回歸二十世紀轉折之初的現代主義和前衛運動有其必要，並該當留意這波藝術改革中藝術形式相互關連的跨領域傾向。比較繪畫、雕塑以及詩歌的跨領域讀法能讓讀者更加明瞭詩人龐德(Ezra Pound)的意象主義、渦旋主義與《海濱花園》中接收、挪用及排拒這些風格的關聯。在龐德的意象主義及渦旋派宣言中，他認為康丁斯基(Kandinsky)的色彩學能恰如其分地解釋他理想中「好的藝術形式」，而他同時也認為H.D. 的《海濱花園》相當符合意象詩派的美學要求。本文試圖在前衛運動的框架中建立康丁斯基與H.D.美學主張的關係，從而將《海濱花園》視為文學中的前衛運動之作。在《海濱花園》中不難發現刻意安排的海陸之交的辯證地形、各種希臘神祇的示現、各種花朵的著色、以及「追尋」的母題都呼應了康丁斯基在《論藝術之精神性》中意圖成為時代先鋒的美學企圖。除此之外，《海濱花園》也展示了意象詩及渦旋派的語言效力。藉由表面上看來被視為「男性」的語言呈現，加上屢次向古典中的莎弗(Sappho)意象致敬，H.D.借用了雙性、跨性的性別論述來強化她詩中的發聲位置。儘管《海濱花園》同時呈現早期現代主義中漂流、意義滑移的徵狀，它仍舊非常清楚自身操演嶄新風格的使命。如此一來，性別議題不能只在女性書寫的脈絡中找尋解答，而要從H.D.和龐德的互文性(intertextuality)中並列閱讀。H.D.試圖定位一種獨立於意象詩標籤外的美學，同時展演前衛運動的美學實踐，而這種策略性的寫作只能藉由策略性的跨領域閱讀來發掘。
The two paradigms of H.D. study—psychoanalysis and feminism undermine the subversive power understated especially in her early Imagist poetry. It is often considered that Imagism suppresses the develpment of her female poetic voice. In my thesis, I aim to question the inadequecy of placing H.D. merely either in the context of female writing or taking it as a psychoanalytical model. Focusing more on the historcal framework of Modernism, this thesis unfolds the complexity of rereading the desexualized subject in H.D.’s first volume Sea Garden. Instead of reading it as an example of the preliminary, rather unmature stage in H.D.’s writing career, I would like to suggest that the re-appropration of the traditional trope of a garden, the deliberately ambiguous speaking subject, and the para-texual reference with her male contemporaries all point to H.D.’s refusal of a subordinate literary status and her aesthetic attitude toward creating an alternative female sujectivity. In my opinion, it is necessary to trace back to the making of Modernism and Avant-garde at the turn of the early twentieth century, and draw the attention to the interdisciplinary tendency during the artistic ferment. The comparative, interdisciplinary reading between paintings, sculpture and poetry helps to better understand the whole picture of Pound’s Imagism and Vorticism in relation to the reception, re-appropriation, and refusal of this particular style in H.D.’s Sea Garden. In Pound’s Imagism and Vorticism manifesto, he contends that Kandinsky’s color theory properly explains his idea of a “good form.” Since Sea Garden is also regarded a as successful work in accordance with the Imagist discipline, this thesis attemps to establish the link between H.D. and Kandinsky in the framework of Avant-garde. It can be observed that the deliberate arrangement of a dialectic landscape, the representation of the divinity, the political coloring of the flowers, and the theme of pursuit not only corresponds to Kandinsky’s artistic quest as a fore-fronter in On the Spiritual in Art, but also examplifies an effective expression with the Imagist and Vorticist language. By mastering the seeming “male form” while paying tribute to the classical, Sapphic tradition, H.D. incoporates a bixual gender discourse to strengthen her voice as a poetess. Although taking on the symptom of a drifting, slippery subject in early Modernism, Sea Garden is very self-conscious in demonstrating a new style ahead of its time. The gender struggle should not be resolved only through the mapping of female writing, but through the metaphorical undertone that lies in the inter-texuality and para-textuality between H.D.’s writing and Pound’s poems. She intends to enchor an alternative beauty that is independent from the Imagist label, and meanwhile demonstrates an strategic Avant-garde writing practice, which can only be decoded through strategic interdisciplinary reading.
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