The Pursuit of Freedom: Reading Jakobson Reading Saussure
本論文奠基於二十世紀八零年代以降所盛行的文本閱讀，重新檢視索緒爾﹝Ferdinand de Saussure﹞的語言學理論。和先前相關文獻不同的是，本論文以比較的角度出發，探討雅克慎﹝Roman Jakobson﹞對索緒爾理論的創造性誤讀和再現。從很多方面看來，雅克慎的理論都是索緒爾的延伸或修正：他的隱喻和換喻﹝metaphor and metonymy﹞取代了索緒爾的聚合關係和組合關係﹝syntagmatic and associative relations﹞，他的傳達模式﹝scheme of communication﹞取代了索緒爾的言語交流圖﹝speaking-circuit﹞。本論文主張，雅克慎的這兩個取代顯示了某種理論的轉向；他意圖達成對索緒爾語言學理論和規範的超越，從而得到論述的自由。在本文中，作者爬梳雅克慎對索緒爾的挪用，整理出兩項論述的方向：一、雅克慎將索氏的理論重心從較缺乏可動性的聚合系統移到較富創造力的隱喻模型。二、雅克慎打破了索氏以語言系統﹝langue﹞為主，言語﹝parole﹞為輔的架構，將語言符號系統收編在溝通理論之下。本論文試圖以兩者理論的和解做結，強調雖然雅克慎似乎沒有真正進入過索緒爾及其支持者的論述當中，但是他的語言學理論無可避免地必須從對索緒爾的閱讀出發。也就是說，索緒爾的《普通語言學概論》﹝Course in General Linguistics﹞是雅克慎創造性誤讀的基礎，而非應當被揚棄的過時理論。
With the rise of “reading” as a textual practice in the early 80s, reading Saussure has gained much popularity. This thesis intends to join the fray and reread Saussure from a special angle: it aims at examining Roman Jakobson’s creative (mis)reading of the Course and his “development” of Saussure’s models. Jakobsonian theory can be seen in many ways as the revision of certain Saussurean ideas: his metaphor-metonymy pair replaces the associative and syntagmatic relations; and his six-factor scheme of communication substitutes the speaking-circuit. This thesis argues that the two theoretical refinements demonstrate a shift of critical attention that strives to make possible a transcendence—a liberalization of the Saussurean rule of game. With the goal of pursuing freedom at heart, the thesis scrutinizes the two Jakobsonian refinements respectively. The first refinement reorients the discussion from an old focus, i.e. the fixed syntagmatic system, towards a new one, i.e. the more creative metaphoric pole. The second reorganizes the relationship between langue and parole, a relationship first proposed by Saussure. It places code (langue) in a model of communication (parole) rather than the other way around, as Saussure’s speaking-circuit once does. These findings show that a certain pattern emerges out of Jakobson’s theoretical project: a certain intention to break free from the Course seen as the authorial text of modern linguistics. This thesis ends, however, with the reconciliation between Saussure and Jakobson, suggesting that although Jakobson misreads Saussure in places, that although Jakobson seems to remain on the outside of Saussure, his theory must depart from the Geneva master. In other words, it is Saussure’s works that enables Jakobson’s creative misreading.
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