|Title:||Stopping Smoking Might Reduce Tumour Recurrence in Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer||Authors:||CHEN, CHUNG-HSIN
|Keywords:||tobacco;carcinogen;exposure;carcinoma;transitional cell;bladder||Issue Date:||2007||Journal Volume:||v.100||Journal Issue:||n.2||Start page/Pages:||281-286||Source:||BJU INTERNATIONAL||Abstract:||
Objective To evaluate effects of stopping smoking on the outcome of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, as cigarette smoking is a risk factor for bladder cancer and little is known about whether stopping smoking reduces the risk of recurrence or progression. Patients and methods Between January 1997 and July 2005, 297 men with primary nonmuscle- invasive bladder cancer were treated with transurethral resection (TUR); their smoking status before and after the diagnosis of bladder cancer was obtained by a post hoc questionnaire and interview. 'Quitters' were those who ceased smoking within a year before and 3 months after the diagnosis. Ex-smokers were those who ceased smoking more than a year before diagnosis . Several pathological and clinical variables were compared, with all statistical comparisons being two-sided. Results In all, 265 patients completed the questionnaire, including 64 non-smokers, 64 ex -smokers, 59 quitters, and 78 continued smokers. The median follow-up was 38 months. There were no significant differences in the strata of stage, grade, tumour multiplicity, intravesical therapy, or median follow-up duration between the four patient groups. The respective 3- year recurrence-free survival of continued smokers, non- smokers, ex-smokers and quitters was 45%, 57%, 62% and 70%. By multivariate analysis, high-grade, T1-stage, multiple tumours and continued smoking were significant independent predictors for a shorter recurrence-free survival. Quitters had a lower risk of recurrence than did either continued smokers or non-smokers, but had a similar risk to ex-smokers . Conclusions Stopping smoking might be associated with a lower recurrence rate for patients with nonmuscle- invasive bladder cancer.
|Appears in Collections:||法醫學科所|
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