Portraits of the Yang-Clan Heroic Women of Beijing Opera—From the Traditional to the Contemporary
|關鍵字:||楊家將;楊家將女性;戲曲改革;穆桂英掛帥;楊門女將;the Yang-Clan Warriors;the Yang-Clan heroic women;Opera Reform;Mu Gui-ying Takes Command;The Yang-Clan Female Warriors||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||清代中葉京劇興起繁盛以來逐漸吸收衍生出大批「楊家將」劇目，在許多看似以男性為主要角色的劇目中，諸如佘太君、穆桂英、蕭太后、楊排風等女性人物形象，仍相當獨特鮮活，剛強堅毅不在男子之下。1949年，戲曲發展進入「當代戲曲」階段，尤其在中共「戲曲改革」政策之下，竟也累積出一批新編楊家將劇目，其中絕大多數是以楊家將裡的女性人物為主角，更產生諸如《穆桂英掛帥》、《楊門女將》等當代新經典，楊家將戲裡的女性形象在傳統基礎之上，更加立體飽滿而有新創發。本論文將自分析京劇傳統楊家將戲裡的女性形象開始，配合檢視當代「戲曲改革」等的政治主題影響，自當代返照傳統，突出當代京劇楊家將戲裡，劇作家及演員們共同創造出的女性新形象。
Since Beijing Opera arose in the middle Qing Dynasty, it has acquired and propagated a large traditional repertoire about the Yang-Clan Warriors. While many plays of the repertoire seemingly feature male characters, females, like Dowager She, Mu Gui-ying, Queen Mother Xiao, Yang Pai-feng, and etc., still present vividly distinct images with their perseverance and toughness no inferior to the males. The contemporary stage of Chinese Operas began in 1949, and under Opera-reform policies actively practiced by the China government, a new contemporary Yang-Clan repertoire mostly protraying those heroic women has appeared, some of which have come to become the classic, including Mu Gui-ying Takes Command and The Yang-Clan Female Warriors. Furthermore, the contemporary images of the females in the Yang-Clan plays have thus been innovatively developed and deepened based on their traditional ones. This thesis will analyze the image evolvement of the Yang-Clan heroic women, from the traditional to the contemporary, as well as inspect the political themes reflected from the plays, dominated by Opera-reform policies. And through comparing with the traditional images, the Yang-Clan heroic women’s contemporary characteristics co-created by those outstanding playwrights, actors, and actresses shall be clearly revealed.
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