Research On The Zaju Plays Of ZhuYou-dun And Relevant Issues
|Keywords:||周憲王朱有燉;誠齋雜劇;誠齋樂府;誠齋傳奇;明初戲曲史;雜劇;Zhou Xian-Wang(the exemplary prince of Zhou);Zhu You-dun;Cheng-zhai Yue-fu;Cheng-zhai Zaju;Cheng-zhai Chuan-qi;Chinese-Opera History of the early Ming Dynasty;zaju(variety plays)||Issue Date:||2008||Abstract:||
明周憲王朱有燉（1379-1439）是中國明代初年重要的雜劇作者，他特殊的藩王身分在中國戲曲史上亦有相當的獨特性，更重要的是，他畢生創作三十一本雜劇且悉數存世，是元明雜劇作者中存世作品最多的一位。且其雜劇之周藩原刻本是現存雜劇刊本中，僅次於《元刊雜劇三十種》的古老刊本，這些劇本之前又多半有序言或引辭自述創作緣由。因此，其生平、著作、創作心路均斑斑可考，可以說是中國戲曲作家中，第一個「完整的個案」，比前此的作家有著完整的面貌，即使與後世作者相較，朱有燉的「完整性」也絲毫不遜色，是足以吸引研究者目光的。本論文即以此作為研究對象。 「緒論」部分主要進行文獻回顧，探討歷代評價的轉變，並由此提出本論文之問題意識。第一章論朱有燉生平與雜劇作品。以朱有燉以及明初周藩際遇為核心，描畫朱有燉的創作心路。繼而由版本學的角度討論述其現存雜劇版本之特色，勾勒朱有燉雜劇傳存的面貌。第二章著眼於朱有燉與明初戲曲史之間的關連性，就外緣論述官方的戲曲政策，以及內緣的倫理觀與文學觀在朱有燉雜劇中的反映。最後概觀元末明初戲曲整體大環境中的劇作家面貌。 第三、四章進入各別作品的討論，以類型批評的方式，概述朱有燉三十一本雜劇的內容，闡述各劇之本事、創作動機、以及劇作家的創作主旨與目的，與改正前編的成果；並據各雜劇之序言或引辭，檢視其創作成果與創作目的是否取得一致性。第三章討論的劇類，主要是元代即已盛行，而發展出一定敘述模式的戲劇類型，包括水滸劇、節義劇、妓女劇、度脫劇。特別是妓女劇與度脫劇與元代雜劇有著極大的不同。朱有燉雜劇中的婦女與妓女常以寧為玉碎、不為瓦全的精神，為求大節而殉死，以證明其貞潔，表現了高度的道德意識。在度脫劇方面，朱有燉作品中的「被度者」往往一心期待成為神仙，一旦度脫者現身度脫，被度者便欣然從之，隨即出現龐大的神仙陣容，在一片歡欣鼓舞的仙樂仙舞中上升天界成為神仙，元雜劇中的入世精神，在此已經不復存在。第四章討論的儀式劇、慶賀劇、賞花劇則更是朱有燉開啟的新典範，特別是慶賀劇與明代宮廷中的教坊編演雜劇有相當明顯的淵源關係。而賞花劇則往往於簡單的情節之中穿插大量、多元的演唱方式、舞蹈形式、調笑科諢，成為熱鬧的歌舞劇。 第五章闡述朱有燉雜劇的表演藝術。對〈村田樂〉、〈十六天魔舞〉、〈十七換頭舞〉、〈青天歌〉等歌舞的淵源進行爬梳，而發現朱有燉的歌舞除了繼承前朝歌舞之外，也融合明代初年所發展出的樂舞。而其劇作夾雜大量科諢，也豐富了作品的趣味性。最後整理其作品中反映的穿戴、砌末，以見當時的藝術水準。第六章討論朱有燉雜劇在體製上的突破及相關問題。腳色運用方面，朱有燉運用的腳色與元刊雜劇相較差異不大，但他打破了一人主唱的慣例，配合劇情需要更自由地運用腳色。又因為朱有燉雜劇的賓白完整，其劇中淨腳相較於賓白不全的元刊雜劇，有著更豐富的表現。論文繼而討論了「全賓」一詞與相關衍申的問題。本文認為元刊雜劇的文本形態基本上屬於一種「幕表戲」的反映，而是一種「單腳本」，也就是僅錄正旦或正末等正腳表演內容的本子。因而朱有燉雜劇中普遍標註的「全賓」一詞，相較於「單腳本」，是一種「全貫串」或「總講本」，也就是完整收錄舞台上各種角色的表演內容的本子。繼而討論北雜劇「曲白先後」的問題，而認為元代雜劇文本的創作，仍可能是一種「先作曲，而賓白由後人添補」的文本。 總的說來，朱有燉可視為北曲雜劇在元代以來的發展過程中，一個具備總結性質的劇作家，完整保存至今的朱有燉雜劇更可提供給研究者許多線索來填補明初戲曲的發展樣態，是戲曲史上一位承先啟後的重要作者。他對於南北曲都抱持著開明的態度，認為南北曲與《詩經》之詩除了古今之別以外有相同的內涵。因而他認真創作雜劇散曲，但又在作品中寄託許多道德觀念，太過強烈的道德意識相當程度抹煞了他的雜劇對於人性的追求，也限制了文學性的成就。另一方面，他是一個藝術家，作品中充滿了歌舞與科諢，打造了許許多多歌舞紛繁的歌舞劇。他作品沾染了時代的氣息，無論是對於明代宮廷雜劇的影響，或者道德觀、文學觀等意識形態均與明初社會觀念聲息相通，反映著雜劇入明以後所表現出與元人迥然有異的獨特意境。相較於元代雜劇被學者深入挖掘、研究，朱有燉以其在元明雜劇轉變中的關鍵與樞紐性的地位，亦有不可抹滅的重要價值。
Zhu You-dun (1379-1439), the exemplary prince of Zhou, was a significant playwright in the early Ming Dynasty. Not only did the prince identity made him unique in the Chinese-opera history, he was also, more importantly, the one whose total 31 Zaju plays have been passed down till modern times, the most complete collection among all the playwrights of Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty. Furthermore, among all the printed zaju-play we can see now, with prefaces stating his writing motivations, the original woodblock edition of his plays is the oldest Zaju edition only second to The Thirty Zaju-Plays Printed in Yuan Dynasty. With his life, writings, and writing motivations able to be tracked, he was the first “comprehensive case” of the ancient Chinese-opera writers. This thesis therefore focuses on him and the complete collection of his plays. The Introduction is a literature review, discussing the evaluation transitions from dynasty to dynasty, deriving from this the targeted concern of this study. Chapter 1 first surveys generally the life experience and Zaju plays of Zhu You-dun, by which Zhu’s writing motivations are illustrated. Then, from the perspective of bibliology study and the characteristics of the preserved zaju-play editions, the preservation facetsof Zhu’s Zaju plays is discussed. Chapter 2 covers the connections between Zhu You-dun and the Chinese-opera history in the early Ming Dynasty, reflecting both from exteriorly the official policies on Chinese operas and interiorly the ethics and literature, including an overview on the playwrights of the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty includ. Chapter 3 and 4 discusses Zhu’s 31 plays respectively, categorizing these plays by its contents, elaborating plots, Zhu’s writing motivations, and his modificatory fruitage, and, through the prefaces of each play, inspecting the correspondence between his writing achievements and motivations. Plays covered in Chapter 3 belong to the categories which, in Yuan Dynasty, had prospered and developed fixed narrating styles, inclusive of plays of Liang-shan Marsh Outlaws, loyalty plays, prostitution plays, and deliverance plays. Zhu’s plays of the latter two categories were especially different from their Yuan precedents. The women and prostitutes in Zhu’s plays were often with extreme moral courage, willing to die to prove their own virtue. On the other hand, the personage in Zhu’s deliverance plays often keenly expected to become the immortal. Once the delivering missionary appeared, they would obey enthusiastically, followed by a great band of gods joyfully welcome them to join them in heaven, which was quite contrary to the humane commitment shown in Zaju plays of Yuan Dynasty. The ritual plays, celebrations plays, and flower-watching plays were actually new norms set by Zhu You-dun. While celebration plays showed obvious connection to the plays written by court entertainment bureau of the Ming Monarchy, the flower-watching plays were somewhat like hilarious musicals containing abundant singing, dancing, and humor. Chapter 5 discusses the performance art presented in Zhu You-dun’s Zaju plays. By going through the development of dances, such as Seventeen Variations Dance, Dance of Mara’s Sixteen Daughters, and The Band of Happy Villagers Singing a Song of Contentment, we can find that dancing scenes in Zhu’s plays infused the choreography of the early Ming Dynasty as well as inherited that of the Yuan Dynasty. And the buffoonery in the plays well spiced his works. Chapter 5 also tries to record the costumes and properties in his plays so that we can have a glimpse at the artistic criteria at that time. The following chapter is about the writing conventions and breakthrough of Zhu’s plays. The role-types Zhu exerted were basically similar to Yuan Zaju plays; however, he broke the convention of a sole leading singer from Yuan Dynasty so that he could arrange role-types at his will to go with the plots. Compared with the incomplete prose dialogues in zaju-play scripts of Yuan Dynasty, Zhu’s full device of prose dialogues made the Jing actors acquire more performing space. Then there follows the problems originated from the term “quan-bin (full prose dialogues).” This thesis holds the point of view that the Zaju plays printed in Yuan Dynasty were scripts more like “scenario drama,” a kind of scripts for the leading male and female only. Therefore, the commonly noted term “quan-bin” in Zhu’s plays makes it clear that his play scripts were more like “quan-guan-chuan” or “zong-jiang-ben,” scripts fully contains the lines of all roles. From this, it can be inferred that the play-writing process in Yuan Dynasty might begin with verses, with the prose dialogues added gradually by others. Generally speaking, Zhu You-dun was both a follower and pioneer in the development of Zaju plays. Although he instilled too much morals into his plays, which lessened his humanity concern and literature achievement, those plays infused with dancing, singing, and humor still made him an artist of his time.
|Appears in Collections:||中國文學系|
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