The Relationship between the Academic Environment in Jin Dynasty and the Academic Realization of Guo Pu
|Keywords:||郭璞;晉代學風;占筮;博物學;遊仙詩;Guo Pu;Academic Environment in Jin Dynasty;Divination;Natural Philosophy;Poetry about Immortals||Issue Date:||2015||Abstract:||
無論是術數文化、文學、博物學領域，兩晉之際的郭璞都佔了舉足輕重的角色。晉代學術界某些新風正起，如道教術數和風水堪輿之學的發展、文學詩歌題材的擴充、汲塚竹書的出土及博物學的盛行等；郭璞湊身其間，以一己之才學將各種不同領域的知識連結起來，並能有所突破和創發。本論文欲從郭璞各個面向的學術成就中見其學思特色，進而從其所學、所作之中反思晉代學風對他的影響。 魏晉術數頗為興盛，郭璞正是其中健者。他在占筮與堪輿領域卓有所成，除了己身之天分才學外，也是時風影響下的結果。深入探討郭璞的易學及術數文化修養後，可了解郭璞在此領域承先啟後的地位。方術文化對郭璞其人和學術的影響至為重要，在郭璞的撰作和注釋均有所反映。郭璞為中國流行於民間的文化所推崇之預言家、道教仙人及風水大師，在宗教及占卜堪輿之文化史佔有一席之地，實非浪得虛名。 由郭璞注解之古籍來看，其學術興趣主要在博物，即較為形而下的名物、制度、器物、動植、語言等。博物可稱得上是郭璞注書的旨趣所在，其注釋運用了大量經驗性的論證，著重於對當代各類知識之整合。古籍群書和現實的見聞均為其注解的引用來源。郭璞在魏晉博物學思潮之下力求博學多聞，致力於古籍注釋，終於成為魏晉最偉大的博物學家。 郭璞遊仙詩的創新之處，也就是其藝術成就之展現。在語言形式上，郭璞遊仙詩以辭藻綺麗的文筆維護了詩歌美學特點。內涵上，則藉著遊仙詩題材使求仙、詠懷、隱逸、山水等元素融為一爐。郭璞遊仙詩能取得這樣的成就，有賴於其特殊的社會處境、生命經歷，並與其學術修養、信仰傾向以及其博學多聞、雅好古籍異書的興趣相關。我們除可從郭璞遊仙詩中觀照其人生，更可從其遊仙詩中看到該時代學術文化之印記。 本論文的研究成果和貢獻在於將郭璞定調為知識型的學者，我們或可將郭璞視為學問家或知識家。郭璞的學術成就在於，他追求廣闊天地間的真實存在的知識，郭璞將這些博物知識融貫於心，細心在各種博物書籍文本中推尋，再補充當代個人見聞，於注釋中展現出對寰宇世界的認識。他擁有這些與方術相涉的博物知識並且能應用實踐，甚至能推有入無，藉抽象的卦象占筮和風水來推驗未來的吉凶，由已知推未知，上窺天道，下斷死生，可謂神乎其神。而這般超凡越俗的能人也有他感性痛苦的一面，有他對時代與個人生涯的悲愴，對神仙境界的懷思嚮往，並寫成許多超越、深刻而靈動的詩篇，讓後人一睹他的內心世界。無論在文壇或術界，郭璞都是晉代獨一無二、不可再得的奇才。
Guo Pu was one of the most significant characters in the field of occult culture, literature and natural philosophy in the Jin Dynasty. During then, new authorities were emerging in the field of academics, for example the development of Taoism with its rituals and geomancy, the expansion of the subjects of literature and poetry, the unearthed bamboo slips and the growing influence of natural philosophy. Guo Pu, amid this vibrant academic transformation, connected various fields together with his own knowledge and even further developed new ideas. This paper discusses the characteristics of Guo Pu’s academic realization in all aspects, as well as the influence his work had made upon the academic environment of the Jin Dynasty. The occult culture flourished during the Wei and Jin Dynasty. Guo Pu was among the advocators and executers. With his own talent and also the atmosphere of his contemporary era, he had attained an achievement in the field of divination and geomancy. By delving into Yi-ology and occult culture, we shall understand the pioneering importance Guo Pu held in this field. Occult culture affected both Guo Pu’s personality and his masterpieces. This can be seen in his work and annotations. As a prophet, Taoist immortal, and also a master of fung shui, Guo Pu played a magnificent role in Chinese subculture till now and he is truly worthy of his fame. By studying the antiquarian works Guo Pu had annotated, it is understood that his main interest in the academic field is natural philosophy, which is the more practical side of knowledge, including hermeneutics, social system, implements, animals, vegetation, and languages. Natural philosophy can be identified as the main intention of Guo Pu’s annotations, which applied numerous experiential demonstrations, centering on the integration of knowledge of all manners at that time. Both antiquarian books and lifetime experiences were sources for his annotations. Attempted hard to becoming a knowledgeable person in the tide of natural philosophy of the Wei and Jin Dynasty, Guo Pu devoted to annotation of antiquarian works and finally made himself the greatest natural philosopher of his time. Guo Pu made an artistic accomplishment in the innovation of poetry about immortals. In the aspect of the linguistic form, Guo Pu maintained the poetic aesthetics with rich and brilliant writings; in the aspect of content, he put together various elements into the poetry of immortals, including the quest of immortals, Yung Huai, seclusion and landscape, which resulted in a splendid harmony. Such success Guo Pu had reached with his poetry about immortals can be attributed to the unusualness of his contemporary society, his life experiences, his academic talent, religion, and also his broad interest in readings of ancient wisdom and documents. Not only the life of Guo Pu himself can be discovered in the studies of the poetry about immortals, but also the historical marks of the academic environment of the Jin Dynasty.
|Appears in Collections:||中國文學系|
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