A Study on the Ethics of Li Zhi：An Exploration of his Opinions on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism
|Keywords:||李贄;倫理;三教會通;人倫關懷;儒釋道;真機;道體;Li Zhi;Ethics;human relations;Three Religious Thoughts Coordination;Confucianism Buddhism and Taoism;realmind;Tao||Issue Date:||2015||Abstract:||
今日欲討論李贄的學術思想，可說是莫所適從，眾論紛紜。若回到歷史現場來看，李贄之所以不見容於世，最主要原因，仍是其混融三教，又非儒非佛，使人莫知所從，驚駭耳目。故其雖研讀佛教，薙髮出家，但仍塵緣不斷，不被高僧所印可；然而，李贄又實具儒者情懷，仗言直義，好發經世之語，但卻屢屢與道學家為忤，對程朱理學甚至孔孟四書，都有不經之言，終遭人詬病，以其人為「小人無忌憚」之最。再者，李贄雖時發忿激之語，看似對人不留情面，苛刻待人，但其一生所關懷者，無非發揚道家因性順民、與萬物共在一道的寬和思想。是以，李贄出入三教的心跡，看似衝突矛盾，但若仔細而觀，終不離一「倫理意識」的考量。是以，本文試圖站在前人奠定的研究成果，嘗試對以往視李贄為孤立個體主義、自由主義的觀點給予釐清。並以李贄的「倫理意識」為其核心關懷，再從李贄分別談論儒、釋、道三教思想作為觀察點，論證李贄之學之所以自為異端，出入三教，正是有意識以站在「三教之外」的特殊視角，來觀看各家學脈，發現三教自有的體用論述是其能溝通彼此，進而平等對話的契機。只有建立起三教自身的學說脈絡後，才能理解李贄對於個群之聯繫，是一體無別，共歸於道境之中。 本文主要以五個章節，分別考察李贄的儒、釋、道三教思想，進而論證其人的倫理意識。職此，第二章主要就李贄對《道古錄》中四書義理議題的詮釋，見其如何通過對人性論的考量，與區分為己、治人之學的不同層次，重新詮釋儒學中的禮教論述，並對「己」與「禮」之間的關係重作定義。只有在主體證得人我一體之道境時，方能以圓轉自如、應變無窮之生機，再度掌握禮教世道之本質，實踐恕道感通的倫理關懷。 復次，第三章則處理李贄的佛學思想與其對於出世入世、性命人倫種種議題而展開的辯難。首先從李贄佛學思想內涵出發，討論其在詮釋佛學思想的接受與合會，並透過環繞其人所生發的種種詰難，以見其生命經驗的複雜處境，透顯出李贄如何藉由身體形象的操作與居士佛教的特殊位置，自覺對現有規範進行跨界思考；又能同時擁有置身入世倫理之中，並避免被權力收編的警覺性。最後再以其人與耿定向的爭論，作為李贄之學之所以能使批判與倫理並存無礙的個案考察。 再者，本文第四章則以李贄的《老子解》、《莊子解》二書作為其人詮釋道家 思想富有倫理關懷的依據。首先透過疏理李贄對於《老子》的詮釋，釐清其人對老學的理解，乃是透過道體義蘊的闡發，發揚「不治而治」的人倫祈嚮。接著，李贄強調了主體在體證道體中工夫的重要性，在《莊子解》中反覆重申破執無礙的逍遙胸懷與齊物心境。只有在無拘無執的心境中，方能聆聽天籟，得見與萬物共在並育的天均之境。最後，吾人透過李贄道家思想，更能看出李贄在證道工夫的強調下，實是一深刻倫理關懷的展現。 最後，透過對於李贄倫理意識的提揭，本論文冀望達到的研究目的，主要是使人重新考量其表現在三教思想中的倫理向度。並欲為拋磚，試圖在研究李贄的眾多著作裡透顯一方為他者存在的倫理空間，以期後之研究不僅能見李贄勇於批判世道，為自由發聲的獨立精神，亦能在其對三教聖人主體工夫的提點、證道境界的揚發中，見其如何反省自身、包納差異，願與他者共存的人倫關懷。
The main reason why Li Zhi was shut out of society was because he merged Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts but he was not inclined to Confucianism or Buddhism. Thus, although he studied Buddhism and was tonsured to become a monk, he was still not admitted by eminent monks. Li Zhi had Confucianism’s righteous mind and was eager to propose his views of administrating the county; however, he criticized Cheng, Zhu, Confucius, and Mencius, thus finally being denounced by the common customs. Li Zhi was seemingly filled with indignation, harsh and unsparing on humans, but in all his life, he always cared about the promotion of Taoism’s forgiveness and serenity thoughts of conforming to nature, meeting the people, and being in the ‘Tao’ with everything. Therefore, his states of mind of talking about Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts are seemingly conflict but eventually not far from ethical considerations. In this paper, it is attempted to clarify the perspective that Li Zhi was regarded as isolated individualist in the past and then to observe from Li Zhi’s core concern about ethical awareness to his talking about Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism concepts to demonstrate why his doctrine became heresy itself was because he consciously stood at a special perspective “outsidethe Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts” to review each school of thoughts. There are five chapters in this paper to respectively study Li Zhi’s Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts and further to demonstrate his ethical awareness. In Chapter II, Li Zhi’s interpretation of the issues in the argumentation of The Four Books in “Dao Gu Lu” is mainly analyzed. Further, how he reinterpreted the ethics discussions in Confucianism through his considerations on the theory of human nature and his distinction between different levels in the learnings of introspection and governing people and what he redefined proprieties are discussed. He suggested that only in the ‘Tao’ realm where the subject could prove people were integrated could humans transform freely, respond infinity, re-realize the essence of propriety and morals, and practice ethical concerns of forgiveness and synesthesia. In Chapter III, Li Zhi’s Buddhist philosophy as well as his debates on various topics about sur-mundane, worldly, life, and human relations is discussed. First of all, beginning with Li Zhi’s Buddhist karma, how he explained Buddhist thoughts is discussed. Then, through his numerous debates with others, his complex situation of life experience can be seen to demonstrate how he was consciously aware of existing specifications for considerations of cross-border with the operations of body image and the special position of lay Buddhists and was alerted to avoid obeying authority. At last, the debates between Li Zhi and Keng Ting-hsiang are taken as the basis for why he could make criticism and ethics coexist without problems. In Chapter IV, the two books,“Interpretation of Laozi” and “Interpretation of Zhuangzi,” which were the basis of Li Zhi’s interpretation of Taoism, are analyzed. First, through Li Zhi’s explanation of “Lao zi,” it is clarified that his analysis for Lao zi was through revealing ‘Tao’ and promoting the effectiveness of world governance. Then, the importance of efforts when Li Zhi emphasized the subject’s personally comprehending the ‘Tao’ body is explored. In“Interpretation of Zhuangzi,” he reaffirmed the free and unfettered mind and the Qi-Wu mind that only in the mind with no constraint and adamant could people listen to the sounds of nature and see the eternal fitness of Heaven and Earth The research purpose of this paper is mainly to promote the ethical dimensions in Li Zhi’s Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts. It is expected to be as the beginning of future research, not only on Li Zhi’s independent spirits of his courage to criticize troubled world but also on the spirit of human relations from his interpretations of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism concepts.
|Appears in Collections:||中國文學系|
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