Choice, Freedom and Creativity--Tao Yuan-ming as Depicted by Su Dong-po
|Keywords:||抉擇;自由;蘇東坡;陶淵明;Choice;Freedom;Su Dong-po;Tao Yuan-ming||Issue Date:||May-2000||Start page/Pages:||259-284||Source:||臺大中文學報||Abstract:||
陶淵明在文學史上地位的確立，宋代重要級文人的稱許是重要關鍵，其中，蘇東坡對淵明其人其詩的讚譽更舉足輕重，不斷被後人引述。但陶蘇二人，不僅時代遙隔，平生遭際也並不相類，性格相近處似手也不多。東枚為何如此推重淵明？甚至陸續「和陶詩」一百零九篇？是這本文試圖加以探究的出發點。 全篇從抉擇的觀點切入，認為淵明對出處進退的抉擇其實涉及個性的深層，以黑格爾人類精神發展史「氣魄人」的論點，與朱熹淵明的認知印証。而明能超越「他人價值取向」以獲致精神自由的真正實踐，是東坡最為折服之處。再從飄流與創造」的觀點，分析從權力中心脫逸而出的傳統知識份子，如何藉創作，保持心靈的覺醒，並樹立人格典型。而從陶、蘇作品中對大自然與生死的體認，可以尋索二人精神上的遙相契合。 最後再借用哈羅德．布羅姆「影響的焦慮」觀點，認為東坡可能自覺或不自覺的視淵明為「競爭對手」，而東坡最終在文學史上的成就也可能多少與此「焦慮的超克」有關。
The high appraisal of Tao Yuan-ming by important men of letters in the Sung dynasty plays a key role in establishing him as a major writer. Su Dong-po, among them, extols both the poetry and personality of Tao, and Su's praises are determining and quoted very often in later ages. However, Tao and Su live in ages far apart, their fate and experience diverse, and their personality bears little resemblance, Why does Su think so highly of Tao? Why dose Su write over the years 109 poems to rime with Tao's poems? These questions are the doors that lead to the core that my essay tries to explore. My essay will start with a discussion on the concept of choice: Tao's choices of taking a civil post and later resigning to be a recluse are in fact related to the innermost parts of his personality; my points are based on the idea of the thymos man in Hegel's concept of human rational development, and can be evidenced by Zhu Xi's views on Tao. What Su admires most in Tao is his ability to transcend the value systems of others and to truly obtain spiritual freedom. Then , I will employ the concept about drift and creativity to analyze how traditional intellectuals who have drifted away from the center of power can establish temselves as models of integrity by means of maintaining spiritual awareness. The compatibility of Su and Tao as soul mates can be proven by how in their writing they perceive nature as well as life and death in similar ways. Finally, I will adopt Harold Bloom's concept concerning the anxiety of influence to show that Su might, consciously or unconsciously, take Tao as his rival; that Su tries hard to overcome this anxiety might have something to do with his eventual great achievements in literary history.
|Appears in Collections:||中國文學系|
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