"Painting as Arts": Re-examine the Painting Activities at Sung Huizong''s Court
|關鍵字:||宋徽宗;宮廷繪畫;畫意;宣和畫譜;畫學;繪畫類科;Song Huizong;court painting;intention of painting (hua-i);”Xuanhe Painting Manual (Xuanhe Hapu);Painting School;painting category||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||宋徽宗朝廷的繪畫作品並非是徒具精緻風格的成品，也非政治目標下的副產品，而應被視為當時朝廷政治文化的一部分。本論文不在蒐羅宋徽宗朝廷的所有畫作，亦非意圖針對宋徽宗時代作完整的研究，而在處理宋徽宗朝廷畫作的文化意義。是以本論文將重估宋徽宗朝廷的繪畫作品，並且處理這些「繪畫作品」內容意義上的問題。論文能掌握作品的文化意義，除了以存世之繪畫作品為主要研究對象，也企圖掌握宋徽宗朝廷的繪畫活動內容。本論文透過三個觀察層面進行此一研究，並針對這三個觀察層面，安排章節。在第二章討論《宣和畫譜》，是繪畫觀念面的探查。第三章討論「畫學」的問題，屬於制度執行面的分析。有了這兩個層面的釐清與掌握之後，再於第四、五、六章進行相關作品的討論，以進一步說明這些作品之文化意義。本論文要藉著《宣和畫譜》，首先進行觀念層面的釐清，找出朝廷繪畫活動的「指導準則」，並從宋徽宗朝之「畫學」執行實際狀態來說明制度面執行的情況，最後則要落實到相關作品的討論，來說明宋徽宗朝廷的繪畫活動的實際執行成效，進而掌握這些作品的意義。據本論文研究成果，說明了《宣和畫譜》並不只是一部宋徽宗朝廷內府之收藏清冊，也存在著宋徽宗朝廷對於繪畫的官方論點。宋徽宗朝廷以「畫亦藝也」為繪畫活動的目標，繪畫不再只是技能的展現，而更具有的修養化育作用。而宋徽宗朝廷所推行的「畫學」，是一個得以貫徹執行官方繪畫論點的制度規劃。最後，經過仔細分析繪畫作品，更會發現作品中的「畫意」與前述官方態度緊密相關。從「人物」門類下的〈文會圖〉、〈聽琴圖〉，到「花鳥」門類的〈祥龍石〉、〈五色鸚鵡〉乃至〈富貴花貍〉等，都具有不易察覺的寓意旨趣，整體而言是與文治所推崇的目標相關。
Paintings produced at the court of the Song emperor Huizong are not merely finished products in an ultra-refined style, and nor are they just by-products of some political objective. Instead, they should be considered as part of the political culture of the time and court in which they were made. This dissertation does not just search for and bring together the paintings produced by the court of Song Huizong, and it is not intended to be a complete study of painting from his rule. Rather, it deals more specifically with the cultural import of the paintings from Huizong’s court. In effect, it is actually a reassessment of Huizong’s court paintings and thus deals with the issue of the significance behind the meaning of these “paintings.”his dissertation grasps the cultural significance behind these works, not only focusing on surviving paintings as the focus of the research, but also attempting to reveal the content of painting activities at Huizong’s court. This study proceeds through three levels of observation in terms of research, with these three arranged as chapters. The second chapter, for example, discusses Huizong’s Xuanhe Painting Manual and explores the idea of painting. The third chapter deals with the issue of Huizong’s “Painting School,” including an analysis of how the system behind painting was carried out. After clarifying and understanding these two levels, the fourth, fifth, and sixth chapters proceed with a discussion of related works so as to further explain their cultural significance.his dissertation uses the Xuanhe Painting Manual to first explain the idea behind painting and find the “leading principle” behind painting activities at court. And then from the actual administration of the “Painting School” at Huizong’s court, the study explains how the principle was administered, finally discussing how it was manifested in related works. This process helps demonstrate the results of the actual process behind painting activities at Huizong’s court so as to allow a fuller understanding of the significance behind these works.he results gained from this dissertation indicate that the Xuanhe Painting Manual is not just a list of works in the collection of Huizong’s court, but that it also preserves the official point of view in terms of painting at court. Huizong’s court used the notion of “painting as art” for the objective in painting activities. Consequently, painting was no longer just an expression of technical skill, but rather it possessed the function of cultivating and educating. The “Painting School” promoted by Huizong’s court was also a systematic effort to put the official court notion of painting into actual practice. Finally, after careful analysis of related works, one finds that the “idea of painting” in these works is intimately related to the official viewpoint mentioned above. From such paintings in the “Figure” category as “Literary Gathering” and “Listening to the Zither” to such works in the “Bird-and-Flower” category as “Auspicious Dragon Rock,” “Five-colored Parakeet” and even “Calico Cat under Noble Peonies,” all of them possess as their objective an implied meaning that is often easy to overlook. In other words, it is directly related to the objective promoted in the cultural politics at Huizong’s court.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。