A Study of Style & Iconography of Small Bronze Buddhist Sculptures in the Northern Wei Dynasty of China
|關鍵字:||金銅佛;北魏;個人造像;風格;圖像;造像記;商品化;bronze Buddhist sculpture;the Northern Wei;personal Buddhist sculpture;style;icongraphy;inscription;commodification||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||北魏時期金銅佛更大為風行，廣泛流行於城市和村落間，它在經歷疆土異動、徙民政策、太武帝毀佛行動、文成帝復興佛法，並受到政治、社會、經濟等各方面的影響，而有一番流轉遷化的過程。本文係以小金銅佛實物為主要資料，探討其流行背景、時代風格、區域風格、圖像特色，及其上所刻的發願內容等。現存北魏小金銅佛的造像者多為個人，也有具血親或配偶關係的親屬，而大部分是在家的俗人信徒，其功德迴向對象以具血緣關係的家庭為核心，因此它的作用是比較個人的；與置於寺院或公共場所的金銅佛，或被請出巡行的金銅佛的作用不同，規格通常不大，普遍是安置於家中，供己身或家人供養禮拜之用。
During the Northern Wei dynasty (A.D. 386-534), Chinese bronze Buddhist sculpture is extremely prevalent. Both city people and country people may preserve or pay obeisance in the bronze Buddhist sculptures at their home. Its distribution and production are affected by the political situations, economic conditions, and social organizations. As a background for the following study it is necessary to remember some events, especially of the unification of northern China in 439, deporting craftsmen from Hebei(河北) to Datong(大同), Emperor Tai-Wu’s (太武帝, 424-452) destroying Buddhism, Emperor Wen-Cheng’s (文成帝, 440–465) restoring Buddhism, and moving the capital from Datong to Luoyang (洛陽). These events occur in the aftermath of the tremendous religious developments that take place in Chinese Buddhism art during the fifth century. The main research object of my thesis is the “small” bronze Buddhist sculpture in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The task of establishing the most complete understanding of its art during this period necessarily depends upon a comprehensive approach that utilizes historical conditions, stylistic analysis, spatial analysis, iconography analysis, and inscription research. Most of its sponsors are just a single common person, and a few other sponsors are the close relatives, monks, and nuns. It is mostly smaller than 30 centimeters high. Therefore, it is different from the bronze sculptures that set in some temples or other public place, and it might be for personal use. It is the pourpose of my thesis to demonstrate what a high popularity for small Buddhist sculptures among personal sponsors are. According to bronze sculpture’s style analysis, its development is presented in four periods: Stage I, ca. A.D. 386- ca. 476; Stage II, ca. 477- ca. 491; Stage III, ca. 492- ca. 512; and Stage IV, ca. 513- ca. 534. The period from around 452 until 476, there are some sculptures which appear to have developed stylistically beyond the previous modes. Stage II is probably the first fully developed period. Stage III is transitional period in the formation of the traditional Han-style bronze sculpture. The next major achievement in manufacturing technology and innovative depiction after Stage II is Stage IV. The sculptures during Stage IV is fully cross the boundary and can be set squarely within traditional Han-style lineage. In regard to its spatial analysis, the sculptures from Hebei province (河北省) reflect elaborate and sophisticated taste. Its Stage II and Stage IV both deserve to be recognized as major representative. Otherwise, the sculptures from Shantung province (山東省) during the Taihe period (太和, 477-499) become alive in its development, and owing to Shantung’s distinctive regional position, there are some sculptures which appear the innovative characteristics. During the Stage IV, some sculptures from Shantung have developed into a genuinely mature regional style. Shantung’s Stage IV can rightly be called the major typical period. Exclusive of Hebei and Shantung, bronze sculptures during this period are seldom left in northern China. Even so, we still can collect and identify a few bronze sculptures from Xingshi (陝西), Gansu (甘肅), and Ningxia (寧夏) and the sculptures represent the vivially regional characteristics. Furthermore, in regard to iconography analysis, according to my statistics, the two most popular figures are Avalokiteśvara (觀世音) and Prabhūtaratna (多寶佛). Maitreya (彌勒) is a kind of the influential Buddhism figure. However, few bronze sculptures are inscribed with Śākyamuni (釋迦牟尼) and Amitāyus (無量壽佛). A study of these sculptures reveals the complex variations within the iconography and iconology of small bronze sculptures themselves. The principles of Buddhist iconography for bronze sculptures are not extremely rigid. The brief inscriptions on the bronze sculptures seldom contain profound Buddhist doctione and deep truth. Besides, because of its complicated manufacturing process and technology, the production of bronze sculptures may depend on skilled craftmen to employ a number of distinct casting processes. Therefore, if people prefer to a bronze sculpture, the handmake store will trade at them. The bronze sculptures getting more and more popular during the Northern Wei dynasty, it seems that these riligious stuff increasingly becomes marketed commodities. The bronze sculptures themselves become commodities to be sold and bought and we can be considered this subject to commodification in context. Otherwise, because some bronze sculptures during this period are sold after an indefinitely long period of time, we can not be completely convinced that the time on its inscription can be seem as the time that bronze sculptures have been manufactured.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。