A Study of Ming Dynasty Buddhist Bronze Sculptures Made at the Yongle Court (1402-1424)
|關鍵字:||永樂造像;明太祖;明成祖;漢藏;藏中;藏傳佛教;Ming;Sino-Tibetan;Tibetan Buddhist art;Yongle;Yongle bronzes;Yuan||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||明成祖永樂時期（1403-1424）宮廷的藏傳佛教藝術是明代藝術發展中，極為特殊的一個環節，尤其是大量且精緻的金銅造像，是明代宮廷藏傳佛教藝術最具代表性的文物。本論文將以永樂造像為研究核心，探討此一時期隨著漢藏兩地的交流，藏傳佛教藝術如何影響永樂造像。 相比太祖時期漢藏交流多侷限在政治的層面，成祖時期不僅延續原有的「封貢制度」，且加大對於藏僧的封賞，並迎請藏中高僧得銀協巴、昆澤思巴與釋迦也失入京，強化明廷和西藏的宗教交流。另外，從許多成祖撰寫的密教經典御製序文與其屢次接受西藏上師的灌頂儀式，顯示成祖對於這些藏密經咒的熟稔和修習藏密的熱誠，也表明成祖對於藏傳佛教的信仰，是驅使永樂時期與西藏之間交流的重要動力。包含永樂造像在內的宮廷藏傳佛教藝術，是此一背景下的產物。 永樂造像的風格，諸如面相、身軀結構比例、飾物的設計等等，都與十二到十四世紀的藏中風格相關。而其獨特的瓔珞樣式與多元的題材表現，是元代漢地藏式佛教造像所不見的元素，反映出永樂造像與受到藏傳佛教藝術影響的元代漢藏造像的發展脈絡應有所區別，永樂造像應受到藏中地區的佛教藝術影響。另外，永樂造像多尊的圖像特徵與大寶法王得銀協巴傳授的《諸佛世尊妙相番號名號》所繪製的圖像插圖吻合，更進一步說明了藏中法王與永樂造像的關聯性，顯示出大寶法王一系的藏僧在永樂造像的製作上扮演著關鍵性的角色。根據史料的記錄，主要活動在西藏中部的三大法王，曾多次遣使入貢佛像，也都說明西藏中部的造像應與永樂造像有著直接的關係。 綜上所述，永樂時期和藏中地區頻繁的宗教、文化交流，是永樂宮廷藏傳佛教藝術建立的基礎，三大法王和許多藏僧進京，他們或入貢佛像，或督導永樂宮廷藏傳佛教藝術的製作，對永樂宮廷藏傳佛教藝術影響甚鉅。現存鑄造精美、工藝技巧純熟、題材豐富、數量可觀的永樂造像，不但是明代宮廷藏傳佛教造像的代表之作，也是永樂時期中土和西藏文化交流的結晶。
The Tibetan Buddhist art made at the imperial court in the Yongle period (1402-1424) is a unique chapter of Ming dynasty. Especially the numerous gilded Buddhist bronze sculptures are the representative works of Tibetan Buddhist art of Ming court. These Buddhist bronze sculptures are often known as ‘the Yongle bronzes,’ due to six characters inscription on the pedestals which indicate the sculptures were made in the Yongle period. In this thesis, the influences of Tibetan Buddhist art on the Yongle bronzes, due to the communicating between the Ming court and Tibet, are discussed in three parts from historical documents, the style analysis to the iconographic study. According to historical documents, the Yongle emperor continued the policy of bestowing honorary titles to the Tibetan Buddhist monks from his father Hongwu emperor. In addition, he invited the three important Tibetan monks, De-bzhin-gshegs-pa, Kun-dga’bkra-shis, and Sakya Ye-shes, to visit China and give them the greatest title ‘the kings of dharma.’ The Yongle emperor not only presented them lots of treasures, but also accepted the abhiseka from these Tibetan lamas. The accepting of the abhiseka and the preface of the Tibetan tantra scriptures written by the Yongle emperor show the enthusiasm and faith for the Tibetan Buddhism. Under the circumstance, the Ming court started producing Tibetan Buddhist artworks, including the Yongle bronzes. By observing the style, we may discover the Yongle bronzes are greatly different from the Tibetan Buddhist sculptures in Yuan dynasty. From the facial expression, the structure of body and to design of adornment, the Yongle bronzes show stronger connection to the style of central Tibet in twelfth to fourteenth century. Otherwise, the Buddhist texts and illustrations in the book “諸佛菩薩妙相名號經咒” which was transmitted by De-bzhin-gshegs-pa is a great example to demonstrate the influence of the kings of dharma from the central Tibet. Plenty of Yongle bronzes are highly similar to the deity image in this book. It shows that the kings of dharma played important roles in the making of the Yongle bronzes. Not to mention the historical records also prove that the kings of dharma from the central Tibet have tributed Buddhist sculptures to the Ming court several times. In summary, the existence of the Tibetan Buddhist art at the Yongle court was entailed by constant cultural exchanges between the Ming and central Tibet, such as those religious leaders'' visit to the Ming court made a great influence on the Yongle bronzes. The significance of Yongle bronzes are not only representing the most sophisticated artworks in this genre but also embodying the cultural products developed by these two distant areas.
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