Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322) and the Stele Calligraphy of Song and Yuan Dynasty
|關鍵字:||趙孟頫;碑銘書法;蒙元;集字;加封孔子碑;Zhao Mengfu;stele calligraphy;Southern Song;Mongol Yuan;Canonizing Confucius Stele||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||成長於南宋（1127-1279）、活躍於蒙元時期（1260-1368）的大書家趙孟頫（1254-1322）各體兼擅，遺存作品數量可觀。歷來研究甚多，惟均偏重墨跡，尤其是行草書，碑刻拓本鮮少受到重視。此種情況不獨趙孟頫，放諸宋元書法史皆是如此。本論文全面整理趙孟頫碑銘書跡與文獻，分析各個任官階段不同的碑銘性質、合作者及刻立地點，同時在此基礎上做分期並討論真偽問題。關於趙孟頫碑銘的影響，元代中後期出現不少學李邕（678-747）的碑銘，可能是趙氏在碑銘方面號召「復古」之結果；此外，直接學習趙書的碑銘在其生前便已出現，甚至與之同步。本文發現趙書碑銘影響隨著各期面貌、刻立地點而有所差異，曾與趙孟頫合作的刻工茅紹之（約活動於1308-1343）在趙氏歿後不久刊刻的集趙字刻石也對趙體傳布發揮一定作用。 本論文整理以往多受忽略的南宋石刻資料，一方面可從中窺見不少趙孟頫碑銘因素，另一方面則與蒙元發達的碑銘形成對比。趙孟頫雖號為元代書壇祭酒，但其碑銘書法影響實際上仍受到地域侷限，並未風行草偃使北方亦為之改觀，遍布全國各地的大德十一年（1307）加封孔子碑即為一例。總結而言，元代碑刻質量俱佳，可說是中國書法史上繼唐代之後碑銘楷書的另一高峰。
Lived across Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279) and Mongol Yuan period (1260-1368), the great master calligrapher Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322) was skilled in all scripts and left a considerable amount of works. Zhao’s calligraphy has attracted many studies, but most of them are concerned with inks on paper, especially cursive script. Steles in standard script and rubbings are usually neglected. That is not only the case of Zhao Mengfu but the general situation in the field of Song and Yuan calligraphy, thus the research necessary. This is a comprehensive study of Zhao’s stele calligraphy, analyzing for whom he wrote, with whom he cooperated, and where his steles were erected. The problem of dating and authentication, which corresponds to previous questions, is also treated in this thesis. As for the influence of Zhao’s stele calligraphy, Li Yong (678-747), the Tang calligrapher who excelled at both composition and calligraphy of steles, might be viewed as the model revived by Zhao in Yuan dynasty. Also, Zhao’ steles came into vogue almost immediately. Each stages of his stele calligraphy in fact had respective impact on different regions. In addition, steles engraved by the carver Mao Shaozhi (active c. 1308-1343) also played an important role in the circulation of Zhao’s calligraphy. Through this research, the usually underestimated Southern Song stone inscriptions are found to be part of the heritage from which Zhao’s stele calligraphy is derived. They also constitute a sharp contrast to steles booming in Mongol Yuan period. Although Zhao Mengfu was the leading calligrapher of his time, his influence on steles was still constrained by region, as demonstrated by the example of the Canonizing Confucius Stele decreed in 1307 and erected nationally. In short, the stele calligraphy in Mongol Yuan period is another summit after the peak of Tang dynasty (618-907).
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