Calligraphy of Political Ambitions and Statecraft : A Study on Yan Zhen-qing's Regular Script Style
|關鍵字:||顏真卿;顏體;官楷;干祿;經世致用;多寶塔碑;顏勤禮碑;Yan Zhen-qing;Yan style;political ambitions;statecraft;Ganlu Zishu Bei;Yan Qin-li Bei||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||有唐一代，楷書名家輩出，其中又以顏真卿(709-785)創立的「顏體」最為後人稱道。千百年來，顏體被視為唐楷發展的最高峰，對中國書法史投下了廣大、深刻的影響。然而，唐代的書法評論家既不重視顏體，也不認為顏真卿是偉大的書法家，這樣的現象實在令人疑惑。本文根據以上的觀察展開研究，結論如下： 1. 顏真卿傳世楷書作品只有10件是真蹟，如《王琳墓誌》、《多寶塔碑》、《顏勤禮碑》等；其餘都是後人仿造的偽作，如《八關齋碑》、《顏氏家廟碑》、《麻姑仙壇記》等。另有2件誤植顏氏名下，即《自書告身》、《竹山堂連句》。 2. 按真蹟所見，顏真卿的楷書風格有3個發展階段：(1)學習褚遂良(596-658)《雁塔聖教序》的風格，代表作為《王琳墓誌》。(2) 學習盛唐「官楷」，發展出前期顏體風格，以《多寶塔碑》為代表，表現其干祿之心。(3) 在前期顏體中加入篆書的筆法和字樣，發展出後期顏體風格，以《顏勤禮碑》為代表作。 3. 顏體楷書是以儒家經世致用的文藝理念為根基，具有強烈的政治性格。正是為了在政治工作上有更傑出的表現，顏真卿努力學習盛唐官楷的字樣和書法風格，創發了前期顏體；為了落實「文質彬彬、書以合道」的理想，他又援篆入楷，發展出後期顏體風格。 4. 觀察顏體成立和發展的過程，可以發現政治力量的干預和唐代士人的干祿心態才是推動唐楷發展的關鍵因素。正因顏體繼承了盛唐官楷的實用、功利主義，不強調楷書的抒情性和表現性，於是不得到傳統派評論家的青睞。直到後期顏體表現出復古的筆法和風格，又配合《干祿字書碑》的流行，才使顏真卿在晚唐時期逐漸被納入筆法傳承的譜系，並成就顏體經世致用的價值。 5. 尤於顏真卿名下的楷書作品含有大量偽作，以致後人看不清顏體的真面目。很多人誤認顏體有「燕尾」的筆法，又說顏體的風格多變，發展的過程反反覆覆，並美其名為「一碑一面目」。事實上，就大多數偽作出現的時間而言，宋代堪稱關鍵。換言之，宋人對顏體碑帖的臨仿、詮解、評價深深地影響了後人；宋人對顏體的想像引發了後人的誤讀，也映射出唐、宋兩代的書法思潮有了明顯的轉變。
Of regular script calligraphy styles from the Tang Dynasty, the style of Yan Zhen-qing (709-785) became one of the most highly regarded styles by later scholars. For centuries, "" Yan style "" was seen as a climax of Tang Dynasty regular script, and his work has had a wide and profound effect on Chinese calligraphy ever since. However, Tang Dynasty calligraphy critics did not place much value on Yan style, and they did not think of Yan Zhen-qing as a great calligrapher. This phenomenon is difficult to understand. The main aim of this paper is to further investigate the above-mentioned observation of Yan''s lack of popularity in the Tang dynasty. The conclusions are as follows: 1. There are only ten extant genuine works of Yan Zhen-qing''s regular script calligraphy, including Wang-lin Mu Zhi ""Wang Lin''s Epitaph"", Duo-bao-ta Bei ""Prabhutaratna Pagoda Stele"",Yan Qin-li Bei "" Stele for Yan Qin-li"" and others. All other works are either copies or forgeries of his works, such as Ba Guan Zhai Bei ""Stele for The Eight Precepts"", Yan Shi Jia Miua Bei ""Yan Family Temple Stele"", Ma-gu Xian Tan Ji ""Record of the Altar of the Immortal of Mount Ma-gu"" and others. There are also two works that are falsely attributed to Yan, including Zi Shu Gao Shen ""Self-Written Announcement of Office"" and Chu Shan Tang Lian Ju ""Poems Written at Bamboo Hill Library"". 2. From Yan Zhen-qing''s genuine works, one can see that his regular script style underwent three developmental stages. The first stage was learning from the style of Chu Sui-Liang''s (586-658) work Yan-ta Sheng Jiao Xu ""Wild Goose Tower Saint Teaches Forward"" as most representatively demonstrated in his work ""Wang Lin''s Epitaph"". In the second phase, he studied High Tang''s officially regular script, developing the earlier Yan style as represented by works like ""Prabhutaratna Pagoda Stele"". In the third phase, he developed a later Yan style by adding the seal script brush method and character form, which is best exemplified in his work ""Stele for Yan Qin-li"" and Ganlu Zishu Bei "" Stele for Collection of Model Written Characters"". 3. The Confucian concept of statecraft is the foundational artistic concept behind Yan style, and this style has a strong political meaning. It was in order to have an outstanding contribution to statecraft that Yan Zhen-qing diligently studied High Tang''s officially regular script (including character forms and calligraphic style) and established the early Yan style. After that, he incorporated the brush technique of seal script into regular script and developed the later Yan style in order to manifest the concepts of ""form-content unity"" and ""calligraphy and Dao as one"". 4. When observing Yan''s process of developing and establishing his style, one can see that the intervention of political forces and Tang Dynasty scholars'' ambition for official posts were key factors in the pushing forward the evolution of regular script. It was precisely because Yan style inherited the pragmatism and utilitarianism of the standard regular script tradition of the Tang Dynasty and did not emphasize the lyrical expression and emotiveness of regular script that traditional critics did not look upon his works favorably. It was not until Yan style expressed a ""fugu"" (returning to the ancients) brush technique and style and was able to conform with the popular ""Collection of Model Written Characters"" that Yan Zhen-qing''s became accepted in the canon of late-Tang calligraphy. 5. The large number of forged works attributed to Yan Zhen-qing has led later scholars to not understand Yan''s true style. Many people falsely attribute the ""swallow''s tail"" calligraphic technique (in which the end of ""Na"" stroke of the character splits in two) to Yan''s work or say that his works were constantly in flux, constantly moving back and forth in his developmental process. They even praised him for having every stele''s style differ from others.
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