Revival of Antiquity outside China? –A Preliminary Study of the “Archaistic Style” in Sino-Korean Artifacts from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Century
|關鍵字:||仿古高麗青瓷、朱熹釋奠儀圖、金石學、東亞文化互動 (Korean celadon, Zhu Xi, Shidian yitu, jinshi xue (study of metal and stone), cultural interaction in East Asia)||公開日期:||三月-2012||期刊:||美術史研究集刊||頁數:||103-170||摘要:||北宋的士大夫文人「再發現」商周古代銅器與其文化價值之後，在有利的政治、社會條件之下，透過文物本身以及金石圖錄、禮圖與其他圖籍的媒介，在中國南北各地出現各種仿商周古銅器的器物，古銅風格的流行也影響到周邊的日本與韓國。本文以十二至十五世紀（相當於高麗中期至朝鮮前期）的韓國為中心，結合文獻、圖籍與器物，考察所謂三代古銅器意象流布海東的背景脈絡，并追蹤朝鮮王朝禮儀基礎的《世宗實錄》「祭器圖說」之中國源頭及朝鮮之新詮釋。《世宗實錄》像個時間膠囊一般，擷取並綜合原來在漢地前後相承、彼此競爭的不同禮器系統，有些在中國已不存在的禮器造型也透過朝鮮的新解釋而被保留下來，甚至流傳到今日。這也讓我們再思考「禮失求諸野」的古老說法—雖然在所謂文化邊緣地可看到與文化中心地類似之禮與禮器，但內涵已經過多重轉化。
With the efforts of the antiquarian-scholars of the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127), bronze ritual objects from high antiquity—“Three Dynasties”—were rediscovered. They became models for ritual artifacts used at ceremonies; meanwhile, their shape and decorative patterns provided a repertoire for the design of everyday objects and had an immense impact on the decorative arts in later China. Similar cultural phenomena also appear in Japan and Korea but they have not received much scholarly attention. This essay offers a preliminary examination of the development of these objects in Korea, particularly from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. From the Chinese point of view, this is a ramification of the Revival of Antiquity, or fugu, movement of the Song dynasty, in which ancient bronze forms not only revived but also traveled to the Kory? kingdom on the Korean peninsula. After the Chos?n overthrew the Kory? in 1392, the new dynasty adopted Chinese models to set up its rites and rituals. Emperor Sejong of the Chos?n and his officials consulted various Chinese books for their ritual compendium recorded in the Veritable Records of Sejong. With analysis of the illustrations and content of the section on ritual artifacts, this study shows that although the state sponsored Neo-Confucianism and the theory of Zhu Xi, books by various authors and of different genres, including ritual manuals, examination reference books, and encyclopedias, were widely consulted and even adopted in ritual. The genre boundary was dissolved in Korea. As a result, different ritual theories were excerpted and co-existed in this fifteenth-century ritual compendium. Like a time capsule, it contains layers of ritual theories, with some conforming and others conflicting with one another. The ritual illustrations might appear similar to their Chinese prototypes, but their underlying meanings had been modified throughout the process of transmission, both temporal and spatial.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。