“Sharing the Moralizing Influence of the Three Dynasties” Zhu Xi’s Shaping of East Asian Cultural Imagery
|Keywords:||桂林府學、釋奠牲幣器服圖、朱熹、復古 (Zhu Xi, shidian ceremonies)||Issue Date:||Sep-2011||Source:||美術史研究集刊||Start page/Pages:||061-150||Abstract:||
朱子學在東亞文明及教育的地位，近來已引起學界一定的關注，唯朱熹的「與三代同風」，在南宋器物復古運動，以及東亞文化意象的形塑上，雖有不可忽視的地位，卻尚未引起重視。即便終朱熹一生，可能也未刻意以東亞為流風所及之版圖。這種被忽視的現象，可能因為朱熹關心的釋奠儀，僅屬禮樂中地方性的州縣祭孔儀式，在其浩瀚著作中，較少引起學界注意有關。也可能由於以朱熹為名的《紹熙州縣釋奠儀圖》集結成書，至今只存清代板本，為其著作所罕見。但朱熹「釋奠儀式」的元碑刻拓本及明板禮器圖式仍被保存至今，這些史料不只證實了清板《紹熙州縣釋奠儀圖》與元明板間的繫連，它們與朱熹的繫連，也更為明確，宜放在朱熹的歷史脈絡中理解。 朱熹（1130－1200）在七十年的生命中，花了四十年，試圖以於古有據的三代器物形式，及建構與其道學體系一致的陪祀系統，祭拜孔子。他期望能將此通行於南宋的州縣學中，形塑「與三代同風」的理想教化形象，成為改易、修正或取代當地居民的風俗，或成為減低佛老在社會的普及性的符號。這種理想，在其生前，雖只成功地行於與其有關的書院體系中，他所意圖透過正式官僚體系下達州縣官學系統的努力，雖終歸失敗，唯其職志，卻在生前五年到身後的五十年間，在部分地方官的選擇下，行於部分州縣學及書院中。 朱熹「釋奠儀式」在身後五六百年間，甚至傳至十五世紀的朝鮮李朝及十八世紀的清領臺灣。現存清板《紹熙州縣釋奠儀圖》、元碑拓本桂林府學的〈釋奠牲幣器服圖〉、成化刊宋立〈新昌縣學禮器圖〉碑復原圖、《朝鮮王朝實錄‧祭器圖說》、明代《闕里志》禮器圖、清代《重修臺郡各建築圖說》、清代臺灣府學孔廟祭器、近年考古發掘、以及中日博物館相關收藏等文物圖像，共同形成五六百年的東亞文化意象中的一景，且殘存在今世臺南的祭孔儀式中，正足以為證，本文試圖論述之。
The academic community has already committed considerable attention to the position of the School of Zhu Xi in the civilization and education of East Asia. However, little attention has been paid to the important role that his moral engagement with the models of the Three Dynasties played in the Southern Song movement to revive archaistic forms and in the shaping of East Asian cultural imagery. This may be because his dedicated work on the shidian ceremonies deals with a particular set of rituals reserved for local sacrifices to Confucius and thus occupies only a very small place in his massive corpus of writings. It may also be because of the questions surrounding the date and authorship of the Shaoxi zhouxian shidian yitu, which is conventionally attributed to Zhu Xi, but preserved only in a Qing dynasty edition. However, these doubts overlook the fact that Zhu Xi’s shidian ceremonies are preserved in rubbings of Yuan stele carvings and Ming dynasty illustrations of ritual implements, with further mention in the collected writings of Song dynasty individuals. These materials not only demonstrate visual connections between the Song, Yuan, and Ming illustrations and the Qing edition of the Shaoxi zhouxian shidian yitu, they also reveal a clear relationship to Zhu Xi, and therefore must be understood within the historical context of his life and work. Zhu Xi established a ceremonial system consistent with his Daoxue system, implemented it at public and private schools throughout the Southern Song domain, and shaped an idealized moral image of the Three Dynasties to change, rectify, and replace the common customs of the day and marginalize the social place of Buddhism and Daoism. In Zhu Xi’s time, this ideal was only put into practice in the private academies with which he was affiliated, and failed to find purchase in the top-down officially administered system of local schools. A result of his efforts, however, the ideal was finally realized in the state-run school system during the period between the last five years of his life and the first fifty years after his death. Over the next five or six centuries, Zhu Xi’s shidian ceremonies were transmitted as far afield as the Choson dynasty, Korea, and the Qing dynasty, Taiwan.
|Appears in Collections:||藝術史研究所|
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