The True Mingled with the False at Lin Family’s Garden in Ban-chiau, Taiwan
|關鍵字:||臺灣建築、園林、屏風假山、戲臺、戲裡人生 (Taiwan Architecture, Traditional Garden, Curtain Miniature Mountain, stage, A life in A play)||公開日期:||三月-2011||期刊:||美術史研究集刊||頁數:||185-216||摘要:||本文的最大目的在於解釋臺灣板橋林本源園林與中國江南園林間存在的異質性，並且提出觀賞林本源園林的觀點。本文在一開始即重新檢討園林構思規劃者的「主人」與實際建造者的「山匠梓人」在興造園林之際，其各自可以扮演的角色；不同於歷史文獻學者對文獻的解讀，而以實際之園林興造的觀點重新查閱歷史文獻，確認林園創建的年代與文人謝琯樵、呂西村參與林園構思的可能性。證實林園整體構想是由文人構思，而個體建築或是築造假山則全部託付給臺灣傳統建築匠師負責設計建造，因此形成林園獨特的風格。 林園就是在這種特殊的合作關係下被建造出來，其園林造形的特質就如「屏風假山」，儼然像是失去了真實意境的平面傳統建築裝飾。但實際上卻不然，這座「屏風假山」也讓遊園者再現可登、可遊、可望、可憩的真山樂趣。林園具有這樣的雙重特質，除了其工匠扮演了重要角色外，它亦是臺灣人社會之文化精神狀態的表徵。包括林園在內的整體林家宅邸，在戲臺的數量上或其與看戲空間的配置上都獨具特色。這呈顯了在臺漢人愛看戲的社會風氣與人格特質。臺人常移情入戲到忘我的境地，把戲裡的人生當成真實的人生，把真實的人生視作逢場作戲般的輕佻不在意。基於上述那種園林興造過程與臺灣漢人社會文化特質之滲透，讓林園表現出真假與虛實的美學意識。
The principal purpose of this paper is to explain the differences of the Lin Family’s Garden in Ban-chiau, Taiwan and the Gardens in South China. Firstly, the role of designer for a traditional garden and the master carpenter of the construction field of garden were reviewed, and the established date of Lin Family’s Garden was investigated. Hence the original garden was probably constructed in 1840’s, therefore the Chinesestyle painter Shie Guan-chiau (1811-1864) and the calligrapher Liu Shi-chuen (1784-1866), the guests of Lin Family, had possibly given their suggestion for building Lin’s Garden. Although the arrangement concept of the garden was sure to be offered by those Chinese intellectuals, however the single building and the miniature mountain at Lin’s Garden was built by master carpenter. Generally, the role of a designer playing more important than a master carpenter for construction a traditional garden in China, however Lin’s Garden was to the contrary. In consequence, the Garden represents the characteristics of decoration rather than to recreate the feeling of realistic nature. But it is still possible for a person who excurses Lin’s Garden to enjoy the felling of climbing a real mountain. In addition, the special layout of the plural stages for traditional Taiwanese opera at the Lin’s Garden expresses another characteristic. If you looking up the local literature during the Ching period in Taiwan, then it is can be understood that Taiwanese love to enjoy traditional opera from the old days. Taiwan people were always selflessly absorbed in watching the opera, even reach the state of a mind that they cannot distinguish the actual life and fictional opera. And the state of mind was unconsciously applied in the creation of Lin’s Garden. As a result, the Garden was arranged just like an opera stage, the small hills and ponds just like a background curtain of the stage. Although the Garden likes a stage, fictional arrangement, but it still has the characteristics of the Gardens in South China, namely the true mingled with the false is the aesthetic sense of Lin Family’s Garden.
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