The Seventeenth-century European and Japanese Ceramics Excavated from the Site of Fort Zeelandia, Taiwan
|關鍵字:||臺灣;十七世紀;熱蘭遮城;尼德蘭馬約利卡;肥前陶瓷;德國?器;貿易陶瓷;Taiwan;Seventeenth century;Fort Zeelandia;Nederlandse Majolica;Hizen ware;German stoneware;Trade ceramics||公開日期:||三月-2005||期刊:||美術史研究集刊||頁數:||209-232||摘要:||本文試圖將1624年荷蘭人在臺灣臺南安平地區所建築的熱蘭遮城(Fort Zeelandia)遺址出土的十七世紀歐洲和日本陶瓷，置於當時亞洲貿易網絡中予以考察。遺址所出歐洲陶瓷包括馬約利卡(Majolica)錫釉藍彩標本，推測是屬顧所謂膏藥罐(Albarello)的殘片。其次，另有自德國俗稱鬍鬚男(Batmannskrug)的帶把手鹽釉酒壺標本，從殘片所見阿姆斯特丹市徽模印貼花及其裝飾特徵，知其應是時國萊茵地區弗勒亨(Rechen)窯場所燒製之銷往荷蘭的作品。另外，遺址所見日本陶瓷則是九州肥前地區的所謂二彩唐津。從馬約卡錫釉陶和弗勒亨類型鹽釉器，既見於印尼叭沙伊干(Pasar Ikan)、萬丹(Banten)或日本長崎荷蘭商館等遺此，結合文獻記載，不難得知遺留在臺灣的歐洲陶瓷有可能是經由荷蘭人所攜來。至於相對年代約於十七世紀後半期的日本二彩唐津則不排除和鄭成功家族的陶瓷貿易事業有關。熱蘭遮城遺址不僅出土有中國陶瓷，亦見歐洲德國、荷蘭以及東南亞泰國、東北亞日本等地十七世紀陶瓷，而這樣的陶瓷組合，完全不見於中國考古遺址，故可說是當時以臺灣為據點的亞洲貿易交流的於考古學上的反映。
The present essay attempts to local the seventeenth century European and Japanese ceramics excavated at eh site of Fort Zeelandia within the network of Asian trade. The European ceramics recovered form the site include pieces of bluelead-glazed Maolica ware, which appear to be shards of albarello jars. Other discoveries included pieces of German-made sodium-glazed handled wine ewers, commonly known as Batmannskrug Barradman. The fragments of these ewers bear swallow impressed and appliqu? emblems of Amsterdam, which strongly suggests that they were fired at the Frechen kilns as of the German Rhine for sale in Holland. Japanese ceramics found on the site included two color Karatsu ware from the Hizen region of Kyushu. The discovery of similar Majolica and Frechen shards at Pasar Ikan and Banten in Indonesia, as well as the site of the Dutch settlement in Naggasaki, when combined with textual evidence, demonstrates that the European ceramics found in Taiwan were in all likelihood left by the Dutch. The Japanese Karatsu ware is possibly a product of the ceramics trade conducted by the clan of Chgeng Ch’eng-kung (Koxinga). Thus, it is clear that the ceramics discovered at Fort Zeelandia included not only Chinese wares, but also seventeenth century ceramics from places as far-flung as Germany, Holland, Thailand, and Japan. Such assemblages are entirely absent from the Chinese archeological record, and can be considered an archeological reflection of Taiwan’s position as a hub of seventeenth century Asian trade.
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