The Floating Studio of Tung Ch’i chang
|關鍵字:||書畫船;董其昌;舟中;舟行山水;Tung;Chi-chang;The boat of calligraphy and painting;On boat;Landscape view from boat||公開日期:||九月-2003||期刊:||美術史研究集刊||頁數:||205-297||摘要:||自從北宋未的米萊常喜將心愛的書畫名跡攜隨在行旅的舟中，作為他旅途中從事鑑賞、裝潢、題跋之畢，或在舟中創作書畫，或書寫信札，而創出了備米家書畫船」的名號以來，就成了後世許多文人書畫家的風雅典範。特別是明末的董其昌，因其「結念泉石，薄於宦情」，作為一位米萊的崇拜者及生長於水鄉的書家、書家、鑑賞家兼收藏家的他，又因長壽及官運，一生中數度往來舟行於他的家鄉松江與北京，以及前往福建、湖南、湖北、江西、南京等，得以公務而長途乘舟宦遊各地。即使他在數度辭職、休閒在家期間，也在江南的太湖流域，倣效米萊行徑，皆以扁舟載書畫遊行各處，因此造成他是米萊以後在「書畫船」史上最具代表性的人物。本文為此一系列研的中段，羅列董氏歷年在舟中所作的書法、繪畫、古書畫鑑賞題跋的作品，具體呈了他在行旅中，將扁舟邀遊轉換成他所享受的生活方式和創作情境，以及與其他書畫收藏家或商人交換資訊或藏品，拓展眼界的最佳方式，而在舟中所創作的書畫都最能代表文人風格的作品，在繪畫上特別是山水長卷，因舟行所見而發展出有別於「山行山水」的「舟行山水」或「江上山水」。董氏對於古代的，特別是滋代到宋元之間的許多「舟行山水」卷的江南山水畫的鑑賞，因董氏豐富舟行經驗而有更深一層的理解和偏愛，並對於其繪畫的鑑賞與南北宗理論的建立產生了直接的關係。只有在瞭解了董氏偏愛及長期在這一種舟旅中特殊的創作及鑑賞情境，才能更深入理解董氏的作品風格，及其繪畫史理論體系之形成背景。
Since Mi Fu (1051-1107) of the Sung Dynasty used to bring his collection of ancient calligraphies and paintings accompanied with him while he was traveling by boat, this famous term of “The boat of Calligraphy and Painting” was cast and became the model of elegant life of later literate calligraphers and painters. Among them, especially the late Ming Tung Ch’i-chang (1555-1636), an admirer of Mi Fu, who was “Apathy in Government and Favor on Art”, became one of the most typical practitioners of this tradition. Tung was born and lived in the watery region of southern China taking advantage of his eight official assignments within his 40 years career to travel back and forth from his hometown to the northern capital and different regions in south. During his long trips, he was not only enjoying the scenery which enrich to his landscape paintings, but also viewing ancient masterpieces of art works which inspired him to write or paint, or express his connoisseurship about them on these scrolls, or form part of his theoretical opinions in art history. This paper concentrate on Tung Ch’i-chang, is the middle part of a serial studies of “The Boat of Calligraphy and Painting”. From Tung’s numerous examples of calligraphies and paintings created on boat as well as many colophons written on ancient works, prove the importance of his boat trips as he uses the boat as his floating and moving studio. His landscape paintings especially in handscrolls format often reflect his view of scenery along the river from his boat ships. Together with many landscape paintings by artists before and after Tung Ch’i-ching, we can simplify there were two basic types of “landscape in the mountains” and the other “landscapes along the river”. Especially the handscroll format is the ideal to express or record the artist’s experiences from their boat trips. At the same time, for the same reason, Tung’s understanding and appreciation of those river landscape paintings since Five Dynasty until Yuan Dynasty were deepened and favored and eventually formed his famous and influential theory of Southern and Northern school of painting. Its is this author’s believe that to understand Tung’s numerous experiences and love for boat travel ad habitually devote himself to creating and studying of calligraphy and painting as well as engaging himself in connoisseurship and theoretical thinking on boat are crucial to understand his painting style and the formation of his theoretical thinking. On boat are crucial to understand his painting style and the formation of his theoretical thinking.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。